Conceptual Foundations of Materials

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Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080464572
Format: PDF
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The goal of this Volume "Conceptual Foundations of Materials: A standard model for ground- and excited-state properties" is to present the fundamentals of electronic structure theory that are central to the understanding and prediction of materials phenomena and properties. The emphasis is on foundations and concepts. The Sections are designed to offer a broad and comprehensive perspective of the field. They cover the basic aspects of modern electronic structure approaches and highlight their applications to the structural (ground state, vibrational, dynamic and thermodynamic, etc.) and electronic (spectroscopic, dielectric, magnetic, transport, etc.) properties of real materials including solids, clusters, liquids, and nanostructure materials. This framework also forms a basis for studies of emergent properties arising from low-energy electron correlations and interactions such as the quantum Hall effects, superconductivity, and other cooperative phenomena. Although some of the basics and models for solids were developed in the early part of the last century by figures such as Bloch, Pauli, Fermi, and Slater, the field of electronic structure theory went through a phenomenal growth during the past two decades, leading to new concepts, understandings, and predictive capabilities for determining the ground- and excited-state properties of real, complex materials from first principles. For example, theory can now be used to predict the existence and properties of materials not previously realized in nature or in the laboratory. Computer experiments can be performed to examine the behavior of individual atoms in a particular process, to analyze the importance of different mechanisms, or just to see what happen if one varies the interactions and parameters in the simulation. Also, with ab initio calculations, one can determine from first principles important interaction parameters which are needed in model studies of complex processes or highly correlated systems. Each time a new material or a novel form of a material is discovered, electronic structure theory inevitably plays a fundamental role in unraveling its properties. Provides the foundations of the field of condensed matter physics An excellent supplementary text for classes on condensed matter physics/solid state physics Volume covers current work at the forefront Presentations are accessible to nonspecialists, with focus on underlying fundamentals

Carbon Nanotubes Quantum Cylinders of Graphene

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Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080569918
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume is devoted to mostly to nanotubes, unique synthetic nanoscale quantum systems whose physical properties are often singular (i.e. record-setting). Nanotubes can be formed from a myriad of atomic or molecular species, the only requirement apparently being that the host material or “wall fabric be configurable as a layered or sheet-like structure. Nanotubes with sp2-bonded atoms such as carbon, or boron together with nitrogen, are the champions of extreme mechanical strength, electrical response (either highly conducting or highly insulating), and thermal conductance. Carbon nanotubes can be easily produced by a variety of synthesis techniques, and for this reason they are the most studied nanotubes, both experimentally and theoretically. Boron nitride nanotubes are much more difficult to produce and only limited experimental characterization data exist. Indeed, for boron nitride nanotubes, theory is well ahead of experiment. For these reasons this volume deals largely with carbon nanotubes. Conceptually, the "building block" for a carbon nanotube is a single sheet of graphite, called graphene. Recently, it has become possible to experimentally isolate such single sheets (either on a substrate or suspended). This capability has in turn fueled many new theoretical and experimental studies of graphene itself. It is therefore fitting that this volume contains also a chapter devoted to graphene. - Comprehension - Overview - Highlights in the field

Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics

Author: Marvin L. Cohen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521513316
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure and many-body interactions as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconducting - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 246 illustrations, 9 tables and 100 homework problems, as well as numerous worked examples, for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at www.cambridge.org/cohenlouie.

Non covalent Interactions in Quantum Chemistry and Physics

Author: Alberto Otero de la Roza
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128098368
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Non-covalent Interactions in Quantum Chemistry and Physics: Theory and Applications provides an entry point for newcomers and a standard reference for researchers publishing in the area of non-covalent interactions. Written by the leading experts in this field, the book enables experienced researchers to keep up with the most recent developments, emerging methods, and relevant applications. The book gives a comprehensive, in-depth overview of the available quantum-chemistry methods for intermolecular interactions and details the most relevant fields of application for those techniques. Theory and applications are put side-by-side, which allows the reader to gauge the strengths and weaknesses of different computational techniques. Summarizes the state-of-the-art in the computational intermolecular interactions field in a comprehensive work Introduces students and researchers from related fields to the topic of computational non-covalent interactions, providing a single unified source of information Presents the theoretical foundations of current quantum mechanical methods alongside a collection of examples on how they can be applied to solve practical problems

Optical Properties of Solids

Author: Mark Fox
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199573360
Format: PDF, Docs
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The second edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date account of the optical physics of solids. All of the chapters have been updated and improved, and new sections on optical control of spin, quantum dots, plasmonics, negative refraction, carbon nanostructures and diamond NV centres have been added.

Quantum Theory of Real Materials

Author: James R. Chelikowsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792396666
Format: PDF
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A Festschrift in honor of Professor Marvin L. Cohen This volume is a Festschrift in honor of Professor Marvin L. Cohen. The articles, contributed by leading researchers in condensed matter physics, high-light recent advances in the use of quantum theory to explain and predict properties of real materials. The invention of quantum mechanics in the 1920's provided detailed descriptions of the electronic structure of atoms. However, a similar understanding of solids has been achieved only in the past 30 years, owing to the complex electron-ion and electron electron interactions in these systems. Professor Cohen is a central figure in this achievement. His development of the pseudopotential and total energy methods provided an alternate route using computers for the exploration of solids and new materials even when they have not yet been synthesized. Professor Cohen's contributions to materials theory have been both fundamental and encompassing. The corpus of his work consists of over 500 papers and a textbook. His band structures for semiconductors are used worldwide by researchers in solid state physics and chemistry and by device engineers. Professor Cohen's own use of his theories has resulted in the determination of the electronic structure, optical properties, structural and vibrational properties, and superconducting properties of numerous condensed matter systems including semiconductors, metals, surfaces, interfaces, defects in solids, clusters, and novel materials such as the fullerides and nanotubes.

Scattering Two Volume Set

Author: E R Pike
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0126137609
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Scattering is the collision of two objects that results in a change of trajectory and energy. For example, in particle physics, such as electrons, photons, or neutrons are "scattered off" of a target specimen, resulting in a different energy and direction. In the field of electromagnetism, scattering is the random diffusion of electromagnetic radiation from air masses is an aid in the long-range sending of radio signals over geographic obstacles such as mountains. This type of scattering, applied to the field of acoustics, is the spreading of sound in many directions due to irregularities in the transmission medium. Volume I of Scattering will be devoted to basic theoretical ideas, approximation methods, numerical techniques and mathematical modeling. Volume II will be concerned with basic experimental techniques, technological practices, and comparisons with relevant theoretical work including seismology, medical applications, meteorological phenomena and astronomy. This reference will be used by researchers and graduate students in physics, applied physics, biophysics, chemical physics, medical physics, acoustics, geosciences, optics, mathematics, and engineering. This is the first encyclopedic-range work on the topic of scattering theory in quantum mechanics, elastodynamics, acoustics, and electromagnetics. It serves as a comprehensive interdisciplinary presentation of scattering and inverse scattering theory and applications in a wide range of scientific fields, with an emphasis, and details, up-to-date developments. Scattering also places an emphasis on the problems that are still in active current research. The first interdisciplinary reference source on scattering to gather all world expertise in this technique Covers the major aspects of scattering in a common language, helping to widening the knowledge of researchers across disciplines The list of editors, associate editors and contributors reads like an international Who's Who in the interdisciplinary field of scattering

Modern Quantum Field Theory

Author: Tom Banks
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139473891
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Presenting a variety of topics that are only briefly touched on in other texts, this book provides a thorough introduction to the techniques of field theory. Covering Feynman diagrams and path integrals, the author emphasizes the path integral approach, the Wilsonian approach to renormalization, and the physics of non-abelian gauge theory. It provides a thorough treatment of quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, topics not usually covered in other texts at this level. The Standard Model of particle physics is discussed in detail. Connections with condensed matter physics are explored, and there is a brief, but detailed, treatment of non-perturbative semi-classical methods. Ideal for graduate students in high energy physics and condensed matter physics, the book contains many problems,which help students practise the key techniques of quantum field theory.