Cosmology in Antiquity

Author: Rosemary Wright
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134524110
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The popularity of Stephen Hawking's work has put cosmology back in the public eye. The question of how the universe began, and why it hangs together, still puzzles scientists. Their puzzlement began two and a half thousand years ago when Greek philosophers first 'looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything.' Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh. The early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings; to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded; and to reconcile the presence of balance and proportion with the apparent disorder of the universe. Rosemary Wright examines the cosmological theories of the `natural philosophers' from Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes to Plato, the Stoics and the NeoPlatonists. The importance of Babylonian and Egyptian forerunners is emphasised. Cosmology in Antiquity is a comprehensive introduction to the cosmological thought of antiquity, the first such survey since Neugebauer's work of 1962.

Time in Antiquity

Author: Robert Hannah
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0203392477
Format: PDF
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Time in Antiquity explores the different perceptions of time from Classical antiquity, principally through the technology designed to measure, mark or tell time. The material discussed ranges from the sixth century BC in archaic Greece to the 3rd century AD in the Roman Empire, and offers fascinating insights into ordinary people’s perceptions of time and time-keeping instruments. Cosmic time is defined, as expressed through the movements of the sun, moon and stars in themselves or against the backdrop of the natural landscape. Robert Hannah subsequently discusses calendars, artificial schedules designed to mark time through the year, with particular attention being given to an analysis of the Antikythera Mechanism – the most complex, geared, astronomical instrument surviving from antiquity, and the object of exciting recent scientific studies. At the core of the book is an analysis of the development of sundial technology, from elementary human shadow-casting to the well-known spherical, conical and plane sundials of antiquity. The science behind these sundials, as well as other means of measuring time, such as water clocks, is explained in simple and clear terms. The use of the built environment as a means of marking time is also examined through a case study of the Pantheon in Rome. The impact of these various instruments on ordinary human life is highlighted throughout, as are ordinary perceptions of time in everyday life.

Time and Cosmos in Greco Roman Antiquity

Author: James Evans
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691174407
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Greeks and Romans lived according to a distinctively Hellenic conception of time as an aspect of cosmic order and regularity. Appropriating ideas from Egypt and the Near East, the Greeks integrated them into a cosmological framework governed by mathematics and linking the cycles of the heavenly bodies to the human environment. From their cosmology they derived instruments for measuring and tracking the passage of time that were sophisticated embodiments of scientific reasoning and technical craft, meant not solely for the study of specialists and connoisseurs but for the public gaze. Time and Cosmos in Greco-Roman Antiquity, the accompanying catalogue for the exhibition at the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York University, explores through thematic essays and beautiful illustrations the practical as well as the artistic, ideological, and spiritual role of time technology and time imagery in the Mediterranean civilizations. Highlights among the more than one hundred objects from the exhibition include marvelously inventive sundials and portable timekeeping devices, stone and ceramic calendars, zodiac boards for displaying horoscopes, and mosaics, sculptures, and coins that reflect ancient perceptions of the controlling power of time and the heavens. Contributors include James Evans, Dorian Gieseler Greenbaum, Stephan Heilen, Alexander Jones, Daryn Lehoux, Karlheinz Schaldach, John Steele, and Bernhard Weisser. Exhibition Dates: October 19, 2016–April 23, 2017 Cover photograph © Bruce M. White, 201?

Cosmology and Fate in Gnosticism and Graeco Roman Antiquity

Author: Nicola F. Denzey
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004245766
Format: PDF
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In Cosmology and Fate in Gnosticism and Graeco-Roman Antiquity, Denzey Lewis explores the rhetoric of "enslavement to fate" in the intellectual history of the 2nd century C.E., which she argues is differently articulated by ancient authors but to similar rhetorical ends.

Ancient Botany

Author: Gavin Hardy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134386796
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin have brought together their botanical and historical knowledge to produce this unique overview of ancient botany. It examines all the founding texts of botanical science, such as Theophrastus' Enquiry into Plants, Dioscorides' Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder's Natural History, Nicolaus of Damascus' On Plants, and Galen' On Simple Remedies, but also includes lesser known texts ranging from the sixth century BCE to the seventh century CE, as well as some material evidence. The authors adopt a thematic approach rather than a chronological one, considering important issues such as the definition of a plant, nomenclature, classifications, physiology, the link between plants and their environment, and the numerous usages of plants in the ancient world. The book also takes care to place ancient botany in its historical, social and economic context. The authors have explained all technical botanical terms and ancient history notions, and as a result, this work will appeal to historians of ancient science, medicine and technology; classicists; and botanists interested in the history of their discipline.

Logos and Life Creative Experience and the Critique of Reason

Author: Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400939159
Format: PDF, ePub
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It is rare that we feel ourselves to be participating in history. Yet, as Bertrand Russell observed, philosophy develops in response to the challenges of socio-cultural problems and situations. The present-day philosophical endeavor is prompted not by one or two, but by a conundrum of problems and controversies in which the forces carrying life are set against each other. The struggles in which contemporary mankind is fiercely engaged are not confined, as in the past, to economic, territorial, or religious rivalries, nor to the quest for power, but extend to the primary conditions of human existence. They under mine man's primogenital confidence in life and shatter the intimacy of his home on earth. Philosophical reflection today cannot fail to feel the pressure of the current situation within which it unfolds. Since this situation now involves the ultimate conditions of human existence, its demands have at last given to philosophy the impetus and direction needed for conceiving that the first and last of its concerns should be life itself.

Phenomenology Ontopoiesis Retrieving Geo cosmic Horizons of Antiquity

Author: Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400716919
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The controversy of flux and stasis as the groundwork of reality of Greek ancient philosophy reached its crux in the all encompassing doctrine of the logos by Heraclitus of Ephesus. It centers upon human soul in its role with the cosmos. Philosophy of the Occident corroborating Greek insights with the progress of culture in numerous interpretations (Kant, Kierkegaard, Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, Ricoeur...), presented in this collection has neglected the cosmic sphere. While contemporary development of science revealed its grounding principles (papers by Grandpierre, Kule and Trutty-Coohill) the ancient logos fully emerges. Thus, logos hitherto hidden in our commerce with earth is revealed in its intertwinings with the cosmos through the trajectories of the phenomenology/ontopoiesis of life (Tymieniecka). The crucial link between the soul and the cosmos, in a new geo-cosmic horizon, is thus being retrieved.

Ancient Botany

Author: Gavin Hardy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134386796
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin have brought together their botanical and historical knowledge to produce this unique overview of ancient botany. It examines all the founding texts of botanical science, such as Theophrastus' Enquiry into Plants, Dioscorides' Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder's Natural History, Nicolaus of Damascus' On Plants, and Galen' On Simple Remedies, but also includes lesser known texts ranging from the sixth century BCE to the seventh century CE, as well as some material evidence. The authors adopt a thematic approach rather than a chronological one, considering important issues such as the definition of a plant, nomenclature, classifications, physiology, the link between plants and their environment, and the numerous usages of plants in the ancient world. The book also takes care to place ancient botany in its historical, social and economic context. The authors have explained all technical botanical terms and ancient history notions, and as a result, this work will appeal to historians of ancient science, medicine and technology; classicists; and botanists interested in the history of their discipline.

Ancient Meteorology

Author: Liba Taub
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113471775X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The first book of its kind in English, Ancient Meteorology discusses Greek and Roman approaches and attitudes to this broad discipline, which in classical antiquity included not only 'weather', but occurrences such as earthquakes and comets that today would be regarded as geological, astronomical or seismological. The range and diversity of this literature highlights the question of scholarly authority in antiquity and illustrates how writers responded to the meteorological information presented by their literary predecessors. Ancient Meteorology will be a valuable reference tool for classicists and those with an interest in the history of science.