Courts in Federal Countries

Author: Nicholas Aroney
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1487500629
Format: PDF, Docs
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Courts in Federal Countries examines the role high courts play in thirteen countries, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Nigeria, Spain, and the United States.

Smile Particularly in Bad Weather

Author: Prudence Black
Publisher: Apollo Books
ISBN: 9781742589251
Format: PDF, Docs
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Air hostesses took to the skies in the 1930s, proud and excited to have the most glamorous job in the world. This was a job like no other-filled with adventure, shiny new technology, and work that was thrilling, demanding and exhausting. Young women flocked in droves to be measured, weighed, and squeezed into snappy uniforms. Smile, Particularly in Bad Weather tells the story of the development of this pioneering profession. It describes the shift from the 1930s, when the girl-next-door took to the air with a great degree of bravado, through to the 1960s and the 'coffee, tea or me?' stereotype, where airlines sexualised the air hostess as a point of marketing difference. The book then covers the crucial period where air hostesses fought back, no longer wanting to be stereotyped nor discriminated against in terms of fair working conditions. The job of air stewardess shaped working women to become something more, it tested their independence, it encouraged self-enhancement and sophistication, and it took them to places they hadn't dreamt about. [Subject: Australian History, Aviation Studies, Gender Studies, Non-Fiction]

Concurrent Powers in Federal Systems

Author: Nico Steytler
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004337571
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Concurrency of powers is a key to governance in most federal systems. This volume, Concurrent Powers in Federal Systems: Meaning, Making and Managing, is the first to examine from a comparative perspective its various manifestations, reasons for emergence, and management strategies.

Federalism and Education

Author: Kenneth K. Wong
Publisher: IAP
ISBN: 1641131748
Format: PDF, ePub
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Federalism has played a central role in charting educational progress in many countries. With an evolving balance between centralization and decentralization, federalism is designed to promote accountability standards without tempering regional and local preferences. Federalism facilitates negotiations both vertically between the central authority and local entities as well as horizontally among diverse interests. Innovative educational practices are often validated by a few local entities prior to scaling up to the national level. Because of the division of revenue sources between central authority and decentralized entities, federalism encourages a certain degree of fiscal competition at the local and regional level. The balance of centralization and decentralization also varies across institutional and policy domains, such as the legislative framework for education, drafting of curricula, benchmarking for accountability, accreditation, teacher training, and administrative responsibilities at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Given these critical issues in federalism and education, this volume examines ongoing challenges and policy strategies in ten countries, namely Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. These chapters and the introductory overview aim to examine how countries with federal systems of government design, govern, finance, and assure quality in their educational systems spanning from early childhood to secondary school graduation. Particular attention is given to functional division between governmental layers of the federal system as well as mechanisms of intergovernmental cooperation both vertically and horizontally. The chapters aim to draw out comparative lessons and experiences in an area of great importance to not only federal countries but also countries that are emerging toward a federal system.

The Creation of Wealth and Poverty

Author: Hassan Bougrine
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317596870
Format: PDF, ePub
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There is a failure of governments to provide the citizens of developing countries with the necessary ingredients for growth and development. This can only be explained by their inability to secure the sources of financing which ultimately allow them to "command" these ingredients. The Creation of Wealth and Poverty is a study of the means and ways by which wealth and poverty are created in both developed and developing countries. It puts a particular emphasis on the role played by economic policy in shaping the stratification of modern societies through specific programmes dealing with issues of job creation, poverty and environmental degradation. This book is concerned with the social effects of the ongoing crisis in finance, development and the environment. By focusing on the political, legal and financial institutions that govern society and the economy, the book provides an analysis of wealth and poverty from a historical perspective. It shows how economic and social policies of the neoliberal model have led to a rise in unemployment, poverty and inequality and, therefore, made societies more polarized. This volume will be of great interest to policymakers, academics and students who study political economy, development economics and macroeconomics.

Federalism as Decision Making

Author: Francesco Palermo
Publisher: Hotei Publishing
ISBN: 9004274510
Format: PDF, Docs
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Federalism as decision-making deals with the fundamental question of what answers federalism, as a pragmatic governance tool, can provide to current challenges. Federal theories and the management of specific policies are examined from a comparative and multi-disciplinary perspective.

Comparative Federalism

Author: Michael Burgess
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134219482
Format: PDF, ePub
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A new examination of contemporary federalism and federation, which delivers a detailed theoretical study underpinned by fresh case studies. It is grounded in a clear distinction between 'federations', particular kinds of states, and 'federalism', the thinking that drives and promotes them. It also details the origins, formation, evolution and operations of federal political interests, through an authoritative series of chapters that: analyze the conceptual bases of federalism and federation through the evolution of the intellectual debate on federalism; the American Federal experience; the origins of federal states; and the relationship between state-building and national integration explore comparative federalism and federation by looking at five main pathways into comparative analysis with empirical studies on the US, Canada, Australia, India, Malaysia, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the EU explore the pathology of federations, looking at failures and successes, the impact of globalization. The final chapter also presents a definitive assessment of federal theory. This book will be of great interest to students and researchers of federalism, devolution, comparative politics and government.

Poisons and Poisonings

Author: Tony Hargreaves
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1782627170
Format: PDF, ePub
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It is London in the 1890s. A young woman has just taken a dose of a tonic she’s been given in the belief that it will improve her complexion. About ten minutes pass and she starts to experience breathing difficulties. Another minute and she collapses. Mercifully, death arrives but the poison has not yet finished, for the process of rigor mortis has set in with unusual speed. Her body is frozen into a rigid and contorted mass. This is the horror of strychnine, the nastiest of poisons. Despite knowing all the dreadfulness of this poison, Dr Thomas Neill Cream, the Lambeth Poisoner, used it to kill several prostitutes. And who knows how many other victims experienced the horror of strychnine, for it was by no means an uncommon poison. Today, there may well be more poisons available to the individual than ever before, but there are also advances in medical examination and forensic analysis that increase the likelihood of the poisoner being caught. This book will examine poisons, both natural and man-made menaces, and cases based on a particular poison as well as information about how forensic analysis is conducted. Appealing to scientists and non-scientists alike, this enthralling book will entertain and educate and bring the reader up to date with how important chemical analysis is in crime detection.