Dark Energy

Author: Miao Li
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814619728
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book introduces the current state of research on dark energy. It consists of three parts. The first part is for preliminary knowledge, including general relativity, modern cosmology, etc. The second part reviews major theoretical ideas and models of dark energy. The third part reviews some observational and numerical works. The aim of this book is to provide a sufficient level of understanding of dark energy problems, so that the reader can both get familiar with this area quickly and also be prepared to tackle the scientific literature on this subject. It will be useful for graduate students and researchers who are interested in dark energy. Contents:Preliminaries in a Nutshell:GravitationMatter ComponentsCosmologyTheoretical Aspects:Introduction to Dark EnergyWeinberg's ClassificationSymmetryAnthropic PrincipleTuning MechanismsModified GravityQuantum CosmologyHolographic PrincipleBack-ReactionPhenomenological ModelsThe Theoretical Challenge RevisitedObservational Aspects:Basis of StatisticsCosmic Probes of Dark EnergyDark Energy ProjectsObservational Constraints on Specific Theoretical ModelsDark Energy Reconstructions from Observational Data Readership: Graduate students and researchers interested in Astrophysics and Cosmology. Key Features:This book presents comprehensive overview of theoretical and observational aspects of research on dark energy. Almost all of major works on this area are introduced. Students and Researchers can use this like a handbookKeywords:Dark Energy;Gravity;Cosmology;Cosmological Constant;Accelerating Expansion

Applied Symbolic Dynamics And Chaos Second Edition

Author: Hao Bailin
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813236442
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Symbolic dynamics is a coarse-grained description of dynamics. It has been a long-studied chapter of the mathematical theory of dynamical systems, but its abstract formulation has kept many practitioners of physical sciences and engineering from appreciating its simplicity, beauty, and power. At the same time, symbolic dynamics provides almost the only rigorous way to understand global systematics of periodic and, especially, chaotic motion in dynamical systems. In a sense, everyone who enters the field of chaotic dynamics should begin with the study of symbolic dynamics. However, this has not been an easy task for non-mathematicians. On one hand, the method of symbolic dynamics has been developed to such an extent that it may well become a practical tool in studying chaotic dynamics, both on computers and in laboratories. On the other hand, most of the existing literature on symbolic dynamics is mathematics-oriented. This book is an attempt at partially filling up this apparent gap by emphasizing the applied aspects of symbolic dynamics without mathematical rigor. Contents: Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Introduction Symbolic Dynamics of Unimodal Maps Maps with Multiple Critical Points Symbolic Dynamics of Circle Maps Symbolic Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Maps Application to Ordinary Differential Equations Counting the Number of Periodic Orbits Symbolic Dynamics and Grammatical Complexity Symbolic Dynamics and Knot Theory Appendix References Index Readership: Researchers and students interested in chaotic dynamics. Keywords: Symbolic Dynamics;ChaosReview: Key Features: No previous knowledge of dynamical systems theory is required in order to read this book The revisions concern mainly the application to ordinary differential equations via constructing two-dimensional symbolic dynamics of the corresponding Poincare maps

Computer Simulations Of Molecules And Condensed Matter From Electronic Structures To Molecular Dynamics

Author: Wang Enge
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813230460
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book provides a relatively complete introduction to the methods used in computational condensed matter. A wide range of electronic structure theories are introduced, including traditional quantum chemistry methods, density functional theory, many-body perturbation theory, and more. Molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed, with extensions to enhanced sampling and free-energy calculation techniques including umbrella sampling, meta-dynamics, integrated tempering sampling, etc. As a further extension beyond the standard Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, some simulation techniques for the description of quantum nuclear effects are also covered, based on Feynman's path-integral representation of quantum mechanics. The book aims to help beginning graduate students to set up a framework of the concepts they should know before tackling the physical/chemical problems they will face in their research. Contents: Introduction to Computer Simulations of Molecules and Condensed MatterQuantum Chemistry Methods and Density-Functional TheoryPseudopotentials, Full Potential, and Basis SetsMany-Body Green's Function Theory and the GW ApproximationMolecular DynamicsExtension of Molecular Dynamics, Enhanced Sampling and the Free-Energy CalculationsQuantum Nuclear EffectsAppendices: Useful Mathematical RelationsExpansion of a Non-Local FunctionThe Brillouin-Zone IntegrationThe Frequency IntegrationReferencesAcknowledgements Readership: Researchers in computational condensed matter physics. Keywords: Electronic Structures;First-Principle;Molecular Dynamics;Path-IntegralReview: Key Features: Elaboration on a framework of concepts based on the authors' research experiencesIllustrations of methods ranging from electronic structures to molecular dynamicsDetailed explanation of the path-integral method

Geometric Methods In Elastic Theory Of Membranes In Liquid Crystal Phases Second Edition

Author: Tu Zhanchun
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813227745
Format: PDF, Docs
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This is the second edition of the book Geometric Methods in Elastic Theory of Membranes in Liquid Crystal Phases published by World Scientific in 1999. This book gives a comprehensive treatment of the conditions of mechanical equilibrium and the deformation of membranes as a surface problem in differential geometry. It is aimed at readers engaging in the field of investigation of the shape formation of membranes in liquid crystalline state with differential geometry. The material chosen in this book is mainly limited to analytical results. The main changes in this second edition are: we add a chapter (Chapter 4) to explain how to calculate variational problems on a surface with a free edge by using a new mathematical tool — moving frame method and exterior differential forms — and how to derive the shape equation and boundary conditions for open lipid membranes through this new method. In addition, we include the recent concise work on chiral lipid membranes as a section in Chapter 5, and in Chapter 6 we mention some topics that we have not fully investigated but are also important to geometric theory of membrane elasticity. Contents: Introduction to Liquid Crystal BiomembranesCurvature Elasticity of Fluid MembranesShape Equation of Lipid Vesicles and Its SolutionsGoverning Equations for Open Lipid Membranes and Their SolutionsTheory of Tilted Chiral Lipid BilayersSome Untouched TopicsAppendices Readership: Researchers working with biomembranes. Keywords: Geometry;Elasticity;MembraneReview: Key Features: Two kinds of mathematical technique were introduced to deal with the variational problems on a surfaceAlmost all analytic solutions to shape equations were presentedNew developments were added relative to the first edition

Science Progress in China

Author: Lu Yongxiang
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080449700
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Today, China is in a critical period of development facing a series of challenges such as optimizing the economic structure, rationalizing the use of resources, protecting the ecological environment, eradicating poverty, and fostering coordinated development of the whole society. These challenges can not be comprehensively address without the integrated development of science and technology. This book takes an active part in international cooperation for promoting the development of science and technology and the progress of human civilization. In Science Progress in China Chinese scientists have outlined the development and accomplishments across a spectrum of science over the past 50 years. Scientific acheivements discussed include: the first synthesis of crystalline bovine insulin, the publication of the diagram of rice genes and much more. * Promotes the development of science and education, with emphasis placed on cultivating and nurting scientific talents * Discusses Chinese mathematics, engineering achievements, and the science and technology strategies and policies * Povides insights in the progress of crop genetics and breeding * Offers an analysis of the development of the population and the effects of reproductive medicine

ABC of Physics

Author: Lev Okun
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814397288
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This little book concentrates on the foundations of modern physics (its OC ABC''sOCO) and its most fundamental constants: c OCo the velocity of light and ? OCo the quantum of action. First of all, the book is addressed to professional physicists, but in order to achieve maximal concentration and clarity it uses the simplest (high school) mathematics. As a result many pages of the book will be useful to college students and may appeal to a more general audience."

Particle Physics At The Year Of Light Proceedings Of The Seventeenth Lomonosov Conference On Elementary Particle Physics

Author: Studenikin Alexander I
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813224576
Format: PDF, ePub
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The volume of these proceedings is devoted to a wide variety of items, both in theory and experiment, of particle physics such as electroweak theory, fundamental symmetries, tests of the standard model and beyond, neutrino and astroparticle physics, hadron physics, gravitation and cosmology, physics at the present and future accelerator. Contents: Neutrino PhysicsPhysics at Accelerators and Studies in SM and BeyondAstroparticle Physics and CosmologyCP Violation and Rare DecaysHadron PhysicsNew Developments in Quantum Field TheoryProblems of Intelligentsia Readership: Advanced undergraduates and graduate students, and professionals, both experimentalists and theoreticians, working in particle physics and high energy physics, gravitation and cosmology.

Relativistic Density Functional for Nuclear Structure

Author: Jie Meng
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981473327X
Format: PDF
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This book aims to provide a detailed introduction to the state-of-the-art covariant density functional theory, which follows the Lorentz invariance from the very beginning and is able to describe nuclear many-body quantum systems microscopically and self-consistently. Covariant density functional theory was introduced in nuclear physics in the 1970s and has since been developed and used to describe the diversity of nuclear properties and phenomena with great success. In order to provide an advanced and updated textbook of covariant density functional theory for graduate students and nuclear physics researchers, this book summarizes the enormous amount of material that has accumulated in the field of covariant density functional theory over the last few decades as well as the latest developments in this area. Moreover, the book contains enough details for readers to follow the formalism and theoretical results, and provides exhaustive references to explore the research literature. Contents:Concept of Covariant Density Functional Theory (P Ring)Relativistic Mean-Field Theory (J Meng, P Ring and P W Zhao)Relativistic Mean Field Description of Exotic Nuclei (J Meng, P Ring, P W Zhao and S G Zhou)Relativistic Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov Theory: Ground States and Excitations (W H Long, J Meng and N Van Giai)Superheavy Nuclei and Fission Barriers (B N Lu, J Zhao, E G Zhao and S G Zhou)Relativistic Symmetries in Nuclear Single-Particle Spectra (J Y Guo, H Z Liang, J Meng and S-G Zhou)Structure of Hypernuclei in Relativistic Approaches (K Hagino and J M Yao)Rotating Nuclei: From Ground State to the Extremes of Spin and Deformation (A V Afanasjev)Novel Rotational Excitations (J Meng, S Q Zhang and P W Zhao)Small Amplitude Motion (N Paar and Y Niu)Nuclear Shell Structure and Response with Quasiparticle-Vibration Coupling (E Litvinova and P Ring)Beyond the Relativistic Mean-Field Approximation — Collective Correlations (Z P Li, T Nikšić, D Vretenar and J M Yao)Heavy Element in Astrophysical Nucleosynthesis (B H Sun and Z M Niu)Relativistic Density Functional Theory for Finite Nuclei and Neutron Stars (J Piekarewicz)Relativistic Versus Non-Relativistic Mean Field (P-G Reinhard) Readership: Graduate students in nuclear physics, nuclear physicists; theoretical physicists interested in the study of quantum many body problems. Key Features:This book focuses on the covariant version of density functional theory, summarizes the latest developments as well as the enormous amount of material that has accumulated over the last few decades, and provides a comprehensive overview of its development and applications for nuclear structureThis book contains enough details for a beginner in nuclear physics to follow the formalism and theoretical results, and provides exhaustive references to explore the research literatureThe authors include all the experts in this field including many world-leading scientists from China, Europe, Japan, and United StatesKeywords:Covariant Density Functional Theory;Relativistic Mean-Field;Pairing Correlations;Exotic Nucleus;Hartree(–Fock)–Bogoliubov Theory;Relativistic Symmetries;Superheavy Nuclei;Fission;Hypernuclei;Well-Deformed and Superdeformed Rotational Excitation;Electric and Magnetic Rotation;Collective Excitations;Small Amplitude Motion;Quasiparticle-Vibration Coupling;Beyond Mean-Field Approximation;Astrophysical Nucleosynthesis;Neutron Star

Everything About Gravity Proceedings Of The Second Lecospa International Symposium

Author: Chen Pisin
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981320396X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The proceedings of the 2nd LeCosPA International Symposium, "Everything about Gravity", collects 78 papers contributed by the symposium's Plenary Session and Parallel Session speakers. Organizers of the Parallel Sessions have in addition prepared summaries for their own sessions. The topics range from quasi-local energy in GR in the presence of gravitational radiations, a gauge theory perspective of gravity, naked black hole firewalls related to the black hole information loss paradox, a new theory of spacetime quantization, relations between the Schwinger effect and the Hawking radiation and Unruh effect, conformal frames in cosmology, surprises in nonrelativistic naturalness, inflation and tensor fluctuations, emergent spacetime for quantum gravity, understanding strongly coupled magnetism through holographic principle, the detections of dark matter, ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos and cosmic rays, etc. Last but not least, the closing remark delivered by John Ellis raised the following question: Does cosmological inflation require a modification of Einstein's gravity? After 100 years of remarkable success of Einstein's general relativity, the development of a successful quantum theory of gravity has become a major goal in physics in the 21st century. This volume serves as a valuable reference for scientists who are interested in frontier research topics of gravity.