Earth s Oldest Rocks

Author: Martin J. van Kranendonk
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080552477
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Earth’s Oldest Rocks provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of early Earth, from planetary accretion through to development of protocratons with depleted lithospheric keels by c. 3.2 Ga, in a series of papers written by over 50 of the world's leading experts. The book is divided into two chapters on early Earth history, ten chapters on the geology of specific cratons, and two chapters on early Earth analogues and the tectonic framework of early Earth. Individual contributions address topics that range from planetary accretion, a review of Earth meteorites, significance and composition of Hadean protocrust, composition of Archaean mantle and deep crust, all aspects of the geology of Paleoarchean cratons, composition of Archean oceans and hydrothermal environments, evidence and geological settings of early life, early Earth analogues from Venus and New Zealand, and a tectonic framework for early Earth. * Contains comprehensive reviews of areas of ancient lithosphere on Earth, of planetary accretion processes, and of meteorites * Focuses on specific aspects of early Earth, including oldest putative life forms, evidence of the composition of the ancient atmosphere-hydrosphere, and the oldest evidence for subduction-accretion * Presents an overview of geological processes and model of the tectonic framework on early Earth

The Asteroid Impact Connection of Planetary Evolution

Author: Andrew Y. Glikson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940076328X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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When in 1981 Louis and Walter Alvarez, the father and son team, unearthed a tell-tale Iridium-rich sedimentary horizon at the 65 million years-old Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio, Italy, their find heralded a paradigm shift in the study of terrestrial evolution. Since the 1980s the discovery and study of asteroid impact ejecta in the oldest well-preserved terrains of Western Australia and South Africa, by Don Lowe, Gary Byerly, Bruce Simonson, Scott Hassler, the author and others, and the documentation of new exposed and buried impact structures in several continents, have led to a resurgence of the idea of the catastrophism theory of Cuvier, previously largely supplanted by the uniformitarian theory of Hutton and Lyell. Several mass extinction of species events are known to have occurred in temporal proximity to large asteroid impacts, global volcanic eruptions and continental splitting. Likely links are observed between asteroid clusters and the 580 Ma acritarch radiation, end-Devonian extinction, end-Triassic extinction and end-Jurassic extinction. New discoveries of ~3.5 – 3.2 Ga-old impact fallout units in South Africa have led Don Lowe and Gary Byerly to propose a protracted prolongation of the Late Heavy Bombardment (~3.95-3.85 Ga) in the Earth-Moon system. Given the difficulty in identifying asteroid impact ejecta units and buried impact structures, it is likely new discoveries of impact signatures are in store, which would further profoundly alter models of terrestrial evolution. .

The Archaean Geological and Geochemical Windows into the Early Earth

Author: Andrew Y. Glikson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319079085
Format: PDF, ePub
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Archaean terrains contain a wealth of structural, stratigraphic, textural, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic features allowing insights into the nature of the early Earth. This book is based on studies during 1964-2007 of Archaean terrains in Australia and to a lesser extent in South Africa and India, as well as on visits to Archaean terrains in Canada, the US and China, as well as petrological and geochemical studies of igneous and sedimentary rock suites from a range of terrains. The book will include a range of photographic and microscopic images, geological sketch maps and diagrams illustrating the lessons derived from field and the laboratory. Also other Archaean terrains are being reviewed. The book is intended for Earth scientists as well as broader intelligent readership.

Continent Formation Through Time

Author: N.M.W. Roberts
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 1862393753
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The continental crust is our archive of Earth history, and the store of many natural resources; however, many key questions about its formation and evolution remain debated and unresolved: What processed are involved in the formation, differentiation and evolution of continental crust, and how have these changed throughout Earth history?How are plate tectonics, the supercontinent cycle and mantle cooling linked with crustal evolution?What are the rates of generation and destruction of the continental crust through time?How representative is the preserved geological record? A range of approaches are used to address these questions, including field-based studies, petrology and geochemistry, geophysical methods, palaeomagnetism, whole-rock and accessory-phase isotope chemistry and geochronology. Case studies range from the Eoarchaean to Phanerozoic, and cover many different cratons and orogenic belts from across the continents.

Contributions to Geochemistry

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Publisher:
ISBN:
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Papers presented at the National Symposium on Significant Milestones in the Growth of Geochemistry in India During the 50 Year Period: 1958-2008, held at Hyderabad during 20-22 February 2008.

Neoproterozoic Cambrian Tectonics Global Change and Evolution

Author: Claudio Gaucher
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080932774
Format: PDF
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The book deals with the record of important Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic events in southwestern Gondwana, that heralded the Cambrian explosion and the dawn of modern ecosystems. It contains a detailed account of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian geological record in a poorly-known part of the world, which is at the same time key to understand fundamental processes at the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition. The emphasis is placed on litho-, bio-, chemostratigraphy and magmatism. The palaeoclimatic, tectonic, evolutionary radiation and extinction events and associated mineralizations will be identified and discussed. A synthesis of all data is provided at the end of the book, integrating the data from all cratons and fold belts in southwestern Gondwana. The events will be individualized, their impact discussed and correlations between different successions both within and outside Gondwana proposed. The book is organized in three sections. Section one is an introduction to the neoproterozoic and Cambrian seen as a time of upheavals, extremes and innovations. Section two comprises nineteen chapters dealing with the neoproterozoic-Cambrian events in southwestern Gondwana. Section three will provide a synthesis on every major topic, and a critical assessment of the global implications of the presented data. * The book deals with the record of important Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic events in southwestern Gondwana, that heralded the Cambrian explosion and the dawn of modern ecosystems. It contains a detailed account of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian geological record in a poorly-known part of the world, which is at the same time key to understand fundamental processes at the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition. The emphasis is placed on litho-, bio-, chemostratigraphy and magmatism.

Evolution of Archean Crust and Early Life

Author: Yildirim Dilek
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400776152
Format: PDF
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This book presents an integrated approach to the study of the evolution of the Archean lithosphere, biosphere and atmosphere, and as such it is a unique contribution to our understanding of the early Earth and life. The structural and geochemical make-up of both the oceanic and continental crust of the Archean Earth is documented in some case studies of various cratons, and the implications of the Phanerozoic plate and plume tectonic processes for the Archean geology are discussed in several chapters in the book. All chapters are process-oriented and data-rich, and reflect the most recent knowledge and information on the Archean Earth. The interdisciplinary approach of examining the evolution of the Archean crust, oceans, and life that we adopt in this book sets it apart from previous publications on Precambrian geology. The book will be attractive to researchers in academia and in industry, and to senior undergraduate students, graduate students and faculty in earth and natural sciences.