Empirical Direction in Design and Analysis

Author: Norman H. Anderson
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135643393
Format: PDF, Docs
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The goal of Norman H. Anderson's new book is to help students develop skills of scientific inference. To accomplish this he organized the book around the "Experimental Pyramid"--six levels that represent a hierarchy of considerations in empirical investigation--conceptual framework, phenomena, behavior, measurement, design, and statistical inference. To facilitate conceptual and empirical understanding, Anderson de-emphasizes computational formulas and null hypothesis testing. Other features include: *emphasis on visual inspection as a basic skill in experimental analysis to help students develop an intuitive appreciation of data patterns; *exercises that emphasize development of conceptual and empirical application of methods of design and analysis and de-emphasize formulas and calculations; and *heavier emphasis on confidence intervals than significance tests. The book is intended for use in graduate-level experimental design/research methods or statistics courses in psychology, education, and other applied social sciences, as well as a professional resource for active researchers. The first 12 chapters present the core concepts graduate students must understand. The next nine chapters serve as a reference handbook by focusing on specialized topics with a minimum of technicalities.

Measurement With Persons

Author: Birgitta Berglund
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136723730
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Measurements with persons are those in which human perception and interpretation are used for measuring complex, holistic quantities and qualities, which are perceived by the human brain and mind. Providing means for reproducible measurement of parameters such as pleasure and pain has important implications in evaluating all kind of products, services, and conditions. This book inaugurates a new era for this subject: a multi- and inter-disciplinary volume in which world-renowned scientists from the psychological, physical, biological, and social sciences reach a common understanding of measurement theory and methods. In the first section, generic theoretical and methodological issues are treated, including the conceptual basis of measurement in the various fields involved; the development of formal, representational, and probabilistic theories; the approach to experimentation; and the theories, models, and methods for multidimensional problems. In the second section, several implementation areas are presented, including sound, visual, skin, and odor perception, functional brain imagining, body language and emotions, and, finally, the use of measurements in decision making Measurement with Persons will appeal to a wide audience across a range of sciences, including general psychology and psychophysics, measurement theory, metrology and instrumentation, neurophysiology, engineering, biology, and chemistry.

Information Processing Channels in the Tactile Sensory System

Author: George A. Gescheider
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135419256
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Information-Processing Channels in the Tactile Sensory System addresses the fundamental question of whether sensory channels, similar to those known to operate in vision and audition, also operate in the sense of touch. Based on the results of psychophysical and neurophysiological experimentation the authors make a powerful case that channels operate in the processing of mechanical stimulation of the highly sensitive glabrous skin of the hand. According to the multichannel model presented in this monograph, each channel, with its specific type of mechanoreceptor and afferent nerve fiber, responds optiimally to particular aspects of the tactile stimulus. It is further proposed that the tactile perception of objects results from the combined activity of the individual tactile channels. This work is important because it provides researchers and students in the field of sensory neuroscience with a comprehensive model that enhances our understanding of tactile perception.

Theories of Meaningfulness

Author: Louis Narens
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0415654564
Format: PDF, ePub
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Written by one of the masters of the foundation of measurement, Louis Narens' new book thoroughly examines the basis for the measurement-theoretic concept of meaningfulness and presents a new theory about the role of numbers and invariance in science. The book associates with each portion of mathematical science a subject matter that the portion of science is intended to investigate or describe. It considers those quantitative or empirical assertions and relationships that belong to the subject matter to be meaningful (for that portion of science) and those that do not belong to be meaningless. The first two chapters of the Theories of Meaningfulness introduce meaningfulness concepts, their place in the history of science, and some of their traditional applications. The idea that meaningfulness will have different, but interrelated uses is then introduced. To provide formal descriptions of these, the author employs a powerful framework that incorporates pure mathematics, provides for qualitative objects and relations, and addresses the relationships between qualitative objects and pure mathematics. The framework is then applied to produce axiomatic theories of meaningfulness, including generalizations and a new foundation for the famous Erlanger Program of mathematics. The meaningfulness concept is further specialized with the introduction of intrinsicness, which deals with meaningful concepts and relations that are lawful and qualitativeness, which is concerned with qualitative concepts. The concept of empiricalness is then introduced to distinguish it from meaningfulness and qualitativeness. The failure to distinguish empiricalness from meaningfulness and qualitativeness has produced much confusion in the foundations of science literature and has generated many pseudo-controversies. This book suggests that many of these disappear when empiricalness is intersected with the other concepts to produce "meaningful and empirical relations," "empirical laws," and "qualitative and empirical concepts." A primary goal of this book is to show that the new theories of meaningfulness and intrinsicness developed in this book are not only descriptive but are also potent. Asserting that they do more than codify already existing concepts the book: *works out logical relationships between meaningfulness concepts that were previously unrecognized; *clarifies certain well-known and important debates by providing rich languages with new concepts and technical results (theorems) that yield insights into the debated issues and positions taken on them; and *provides new techniques and results in substantive scientific areas of inquiry. This book is about the role of mathematics in science. It will be useful to those concerned with the foundations of science in their respective fields. Various substantive examples from the behavioral sciences are presented.

Measurement and Representation of Sensations

Author: Hans Colonius
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136871780
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Measurement and Representation of Sensations offers a glimpse into the most sophisticated current mathematical approaches to psychophysical problems. In this book, editors Hans Colonius and Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov, top scholars in the field, present a broad spectrum of innovative approaches and techniques to classical problems in psychophysics at different levels of stimulus complexity. The chapters emphasize rigorous mathematical constructions to define psychophysical concepts and relate them to observable phenomena. The techniques presented, both deterministic and probabilistic, are all original and recent. Subjects addressed throughout the six chapters of this volume include: *computing subjective distances from discriminability; *a new psychophysical theory of intensity judgments; *computing subjective distances from two discriminability functions; *an alternative to the model-building approach based on observable probabilities; and *possible forms of perceptual separability developed within a generalization of General Recognition Theory. Measurement and Representation of Sensations is a valuable text for both behavioral scientists and applied mathematicians.

Unified Social Cognition

Author: Norman Anderson
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136871934
Format: PDF, Docs
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This eagerly awaited volume presents Anderson's cumulative progress in unified social psychology. The research is grounded in the three fundamental laws of information integration theory. Research shows these laws to apply to topics in social and personality psychology such as person cognition, attitudes, moral cognition, social development, group dynamics and self-cognition. This definitive work will broaden the appreciation of Anderson's unique treatment of psychological processes.

A Science of Decision Making

Author: Ward Edwards
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN:
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Ward Edwards is well known as the father of behavioral decision making. In his 1954 Psychological Bulletin paper on decision making, he brought psychological ideas into what had been the province of economists. His influence in this realm is so pervasive that the Nobel committee was able to trace a direct path from Edwards's work to Daniel Kahneman's 2002 Prize for prospect theory. In a 1963 Psychological Review paper, Edwards brought Bayesian statistics to the attention of psychologists, who have continued to proliferate Bayesian ideas, underscoring the importance of the perspective. In a 1962 IEEE paper, Edwards foresaw how the world of intelligence gathering and analysis could by transformed by systems in which humans provided (subjective) probabilities and machines provided computational power. He also showed, in a 1986 book written with Detlof von Winterfeldt, how multiattribute utility analysis could help real-world decision makers generate satisfactory solutions to complex problems. In this book, 29 of Ward Edwards's most important published papers are reprinted, a selection that spans six decades, allowing the reader to see how this strikingly creative thinker generated many of the ideas that are now core beliefs among current researchers. It is perhaps less well known that Edwards continued to make substantial contributions during the years after his retirement. Illness reduced his public appearances, but he continued his incisive thinking behind the scenes. At the time of his passing, he was involved in several projects, and seven new papers from these projects were completed for this book by his last set of collaborators. Edwards's papers are a treat to read. His prose is the model of elegant simplicity, yet full of style and wit. With each paper, the editors have included a short introduction that presents Edwards's reflections on the content or impact of the older papers, or describes the creation of the new ones. Obituaries written by former students and colleagues flesh out the human side of this remarkable scholar.

Handbook of the Psychology of Aging

Author: James E. Birren
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080456072
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, 6e provides a comprehensive summary and evaluation of recent research on the psychological aspects of aging. The 22 chapters are organized into four divisions: Concepts, Theories, and Methods in the Psychology of Aging; Biological and Social Influences on Aging; Behavioral Processes and Aging; and Complex Behavioral Concepts and Processes in Aging. The 6th edition of the Handbook is considerably changed from the previous edition. Half of the chapters are on new topics and the remaining half are on returning subjects that are entirely new presentations by different authors of new material. Some of the exciting new topics include Contributions of Cognitive Neuroscience to Understanding Behavior and Aging, Everyday Problem Solving and Decision Making, Autobiographical Memory, and Religion and Health Late in Life. The Handbook will be of use to researchers and professional practitioners working with the aged. It is also suitable for use as a textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses on the psychology of aging. The Handbook of the Psycology of Aging, Sixth Edition is part of the Handbooks on Aging series, including Handbook of the Biology of Aging and Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, also in their 6th editions.

Relational Psychophysics in Humans and Animals

Author: Viktor Sarris
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135420866
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Relational Psychophysics in Humans and Animals offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of the often fragmented field of psychophysics. It introduces key concepts in psychophysics and clearly summarises and illustrates the central issues through telling examples. It combines empirical research and theoretical approaches from general psychophysics, animal psychophysics and human-infant psychophysics, to create a systematic comparison of these three key areas. Through out, Viktor Sarris makes a strong case for more comparative psychophysical research across different species and across different stages of development. He presents original research and examines frame-of-reference models, behavioural psychophysics, developmental psychophysics, perceptual-cognitive psychophysics and evolutionary perspectives, to create an integrated framework for the direction of new research. The book will be an invaluable aid for researchers in the fields of perception and psychophysics.

Designing Positive Psychology

Author: Kennon M. Sheldon
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195373588
Format: PDF
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Positive psychology exploded into public consciousness 10 years ago and has captured attention around the world ever since. In this book, experts from diverse fields address the question of whether the movement is fulfilling its promise. Join authors like Csikszentmihalyi, Simonton, Emmons, and Fredrickson in charting a bold new course for the future of positive psychology.