Applying Quantitative Bias Analysis to Epidemiologic Data

Author: Timothy L. Lash
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387879598
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Bias analysis quantifies the influence of systematic error on an epidemiology study’s estimate of association. The fundamental methods of bias analysis in epi- miology have been well described for decades, yet are seldom applied in published presentations of epidemiologic research. More recent advances in bias analysis, such as probabilistic bias analysis, appear even more rarely. We suspect that there are both supply-side and demand-side explanations for the scarcity of bias analysis. On the demand side, journal reviewers and editors seldom request that authors address systematic error aside from listing them as limitations of their particular study. This listing is often accompanied by explanations for why the limitations should not pose much concern. On the supply side, methods for bias analysis receive little attention in most epidemiology curriculums, are often scattered throughout textbooks or absent from them altogether, and cannot be implemented easily using standard statistical computing software. Our objective in this text is to reduce these supply-side barriers, with the hope that demand for quantitative bias analysis will follow.

Statistical Methods in Genetic Epidemiology

Author: Duncan C. Thomas
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199748051
Format: PDF
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This well-organized and clearly written text has a unique focus on methods of identifying the joint effects of genes and environment on disease patterns. It follows the natural sequence of research, taking readers through the study designs and statistical analysis techniques for determining whether a trait runs in families, testing hypotheses about whether a familial tendency is due to genetic or environmental factors or both, estimating the parameters of a genetic model, localizing and ultimately isolating the responsible genes, and finally characterizing their effects in the population. Examples from the literature on the genetic epidemiology of breast and colorectal cancer, among other diseases, illustrate this process. Although the book is oriented primarily towards graduate students in epidemiology, biostatistics and human genetics, it will also serve as a comprehensive reference work for researchers. Introductory chapters on molecular biology, Mendelian genetics, epidemiology, statistics, and population genetics will help make the book accessible to those coming from one of these fields without a background in the others. It strikes a good balance between epidemiologic study designs and statistical methods of data analysis.

Epidemiology

Author: Klaus Krickeberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461412052
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is meant for adoption in first courses on epidemiology in Medical Schools and Faculties of Public Health in developing and transition countries and in workshops in these countries, taught for example by members of international organizations. It is also suitable for parallel or second reading within curricula in developed countries and for teaching epidemiology in a Master’s programme on “International Health”. The book will enable any lecturer to compose his or her introductory courses on epidemiology by selecting the material deemed appropriate. It will provide a solid foundation for more advanced teaching. The intended readership consists in the first place of general medical students; students following the programme “Preventive Physician” that runs parallel to general medical studies in some countries; students starting to specialize in Public Health; and lecturers in epidemiology. The book can also serve well as an introduction into epidemiology for anybody else interested in this field, for example staff of health institutions. Examples and practical work are taken from the present situation of health in Vietnam, which can easily be adapted to any other developing or transition country.

Survival Analysis

Author: David G. Kleinbaum
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475725558
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A straightforward and easy-to-follow introduction to the main concepts and techniques of the subject. It is based on numerous courses given by the author to students and researchers in the health sciences and is written with such readers in mind. A "user-friendly" layout includes numerous illustrations and exercises and the book is written in such a way so as to enable readers learn directly without the assistance of a classroom instructor. Throughout, there is an emphasis on presenting each new topic backed by real examples of a survival analysis investigation, followed up with thorough analyses of real data sets. Each chapter concludes with practice exercises to help readers reinforce their understanding of the concepts covered, before going on to a more comprehensive test. Answers to both are included. Readers will enjoy David Kleinbaums style of presentation, making this an excellent introduction for all those coming to the subject for the first time.

The Fundamentals of Modern Statistical Genetics

Author: Nan M. Laird
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441973382
Format: PDF
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This book covers the statistical models and methods that are used to understand human genetics, following the historical and recent developments of human genetics. Starting with Mendel’s first experiments to genome-wide association studies, the book describes how genetic information can be incorporated into statistical models to discover disease genes. All commonly used approaches in statistical genetics (e.g. aggregation analysis, segregation, linkage analysis, etc), are used, but the focus of the book is modern approaches to association analysis. Numerous examples illustrate key points throughout the text, both of Mendelian and complex genetic disorders. The intended audience is statisticians, biostatisticians, epidemiologists and quantitatively- oriented geneticists and health scientists wanting to learn about statistical methods for genetic analysis, whether to better analyze genetic data, or to pursue research in methodology. A background in intermediate level statistical methods is required. The authors include few mathematical derivations, and the exercises provide problems for students with a broad range of skill levels. No background in genetics is assumed.

Regression Methods in Biostatistics

Author: Eric Vittinghoff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461413532
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This new book provides a unified, in-depth, readable introduction to the multipredictor regression methods most widely used in biostatistics: linear models for continuous outcomes, logistic models for binary outcomes, the Cox model for right-censored survival times, repeated-measures models for longitudinal and hierarchical outcomes, and generalized linear models for counts and other outcomes. Treating these topics together takes advantage of all they have in common. The authors point out the many-shared elements in the methods they present for selecting, estimating, checking, and interpreting each of these models. They also show that these regression methods deal with confounding, mediation, and interaction of causal effects in essentially the same way. The examples, analyzed using Stata, are drawn from the biomedical context but generalize to other areas of application. While a first course in statistics is assumed, a chapter reviewing basic statistical methods is included. Some advanced topics are covered but the presentation remains intuitive. A brief introduction to regression analysis of complex surveys and notes for further reading are provided.

Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology

Author: Hans-Olov Adami
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195311175
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The early chapters of this book summarize the principles and methods of epidemiology, the biology of cancer, cancer genetics, the potential of biomarkers, and burden of cancer around the world. Then, chapters of uniform structure on over 20 types of cancer provide clinical and pathologic outlines, descriptive epidemiology, and an account of risk factors and their etiologic importance.

Modern Infectious Disease Epidemiology

Author: Alexander Krämer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387938356
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Hardly a day goes by without news headlines concerning infectious disease threats. Currently the spectre of a pandemic of influenza A|H1N1 is raising its head, and heated debates are taking place about the pro’s and con’s of vaccinating young girls against human papilloma virus. For an evidence-based and responsible communication of infectious disease topics to avoid misunderstandings and overreaction of the public, we need solid scientific knowledge and an understanding of all aspects of infectious diseases and their control. The aim of our book is to present the reader with the general picture and the main ideas of the subject. The book introduces the reader to methodological aspects of epidemiology that are specific for infectious diseases and provides insight into the epidemiology of some classes of infectious diseases characterized by their main modes of transmission. This choice of topics bridges the gap between scientific research on the clinical, biological, mathematical, social and economic aspects of infectious diseases and their applications in public health. The book will help the reader to understand the impact of infectious diseases on modern society and the instruments that policy makers have at their disposal to deal with these challenges. It is written for students of the health sciences, both of curative medicine and public health, and for experts that are active in these and related domains, and it may be of interest for the educated layman since the technical level is kept relatively low.

The Frailty Model

Author: Luc Duchateau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 038772835X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Readers will find in the pages of this book a treatment of the statistical analysis of clustered survival data. Such data are encountered in many scientific disciplines including human and veterinary medicine, biology, epidemiology, public health and demography. A typical example is the time to death in cancer patients, with patients clustered in hospitals. Frailty models provide a powerful tool to analyze clustered survival data. In this book different methods based on the frailty model are described and it is demonstrated how they can be used to analyze clustered survival data. All programs used for these examples are available on the Springer website.

Logistic Regression

Author: David G. Kleinbaum
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 144191742X
Format: PDF, Docs
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This is the third edition of this text on logistic regression methods, originally published in 1994, with its second e- tion published in 2002. As in the first two editions, each chapter contains a pres- tation of its topic in “lecture?book” format together with objectives, an outline, key formulae, practice exercises, and a test. The “lecture book” has a sequence of illust- tions, formulae, or summary statements in the left column of each page and a script (i. e. , text) in the right column. This format allows you to read the script in conjunction with the illustrations and formulae that highlight the main points, formulae, or examples being presented. This third edition has expanded the second edition by adding three new chapters and a modified computer appendix. We have also expanded our overview of mod- ing strategy guidelines in Chap. 6 to consider causal d- grams. The three new chapters are as follows: Chapter 8: Additional Modeling Strategy Issues Chapter 9: Assessing Goodness of Fit for Logistic Regression Chapter 10: Assessing Discriminatory Performance of a Binary Logistic Model: ROC Curves In adding these three chapters, we have moved Chaps. 8 through 13 from the second edition to follow the new chapters, so that these previous chapters have been ren- bered as Chaps. 11–16 in this third edition.