Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes

Author: Ian Clark
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466591749
Format: PDF, ePub
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Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis. This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters. Covers the basics of solutes, gases and isotopes in water, and concentration-activity relationships and reactions Describes tracing the water cycle, weathering, and the geochemical evolution of water quality Explores dating groundwater as young as a few years to over hundreds of millions of years Uses case studies to demonstrate the application of geochemistry and isotopes for contaminated groundwaters Accessible to consultants and practitioners as well as undergraduates, Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes presents the basics of environmental isotopes and geochemistry, and provides you with a full understanding of their use in natural and contaminated groundwater.

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

Author: Ian D. Clark
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482242915
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

Groundwater Geochemistry

Author: Broder J. Merkel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540746683
Format: PDF
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To understand hydrochemistry and to analyze natural as well as man-made impacts on aquatic systems, hydrogeochemical models have been used since the 1960’s and more frequently in recent times. Numerical groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical models are important tools besides classical deterministic and analytical approaches. Solving complex linear or non-linear systems of equations, commonly with hundreds of unknown parameters, is a routine task for a PC. Modeling hydrogeochemical processes requires a detailed and accurate water analysis, as well as thermodynamic and kinetic data as input. Thermodynamic data, such as complex formation constants and solubility-products, are often provided as databases within the respective programs. However, the description of surface-controlled reactions (sorption, cation exchange, surface complexation) and kinetically controlled reactions requires additional input data. Unlike groundwater flow and transport models, thermodynamic models, in principal, do not need any calibration. However, considering surface-controlled or kinetically controlled reaction models might be subject to calibration. Typical problems for the application of geochemical models are: • speciation • determination of saturation indices • adjustment of equilibria/disequilibria for minerals or gases • mixing of different waters • modeling the effects of temperature • stoichiometric reactions (e.g. titration) • reactions with solids, fluids, and gaseous phases (in open and closed systems) • sorption (cation exchange, surface complexation) • inverse modeling • kinetically controlled reactions • reactive transport Hydrogeochemical models depend on the quality of the chemical analysis, the boundary conditions presumed by the program, theoretical concepts (e.g.

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008092915X
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

Geochemistry Groundwater and Pollution Second Edition

Author: C.A.J. Appelo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439833540
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Building on the success of its 1993 predecessor, this second edition of Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution has been thoroughly re-written, updated and extended to provide a complete and authoritative account of modern hydrogeochemistry. Offering a quantitative approach to the study of groundwater quality and the interaction of water, minerals, gases, pollutants and microbes, this book shows how physical and chemical theory can be applied to explain observed water qualities and variations over space and time. Integral to the presentation, geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code is demonstrated, with step-by-step instructions for calculating and simulating field and laboratory data. Numerous figures and tables illustrate the theory, while worked examples including calculations and theoretical explanations assist the reader in gaining a deeper understanding of the concepts involved. A crucial read for students of hydrogeology, geochemistry and civil engineering, professionals in the water sciences will also find inspiration in the practical examples and modeling templates.

Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry

Author: Mark Baskaran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642106378
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Applications of radioactive and stable isotopes have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and near-earth surface processes. The utility of the isotopes are ever-increasing and our sole focus is to bring out the applications of these isotopes as tracers and chronometers to a wider audience so that they can be used as powerful tools to solve environmental problems. New developments in this field remain mostly in peer-reviewed journal articles and hence our goal is to synthesize these findings for easy reference for students, faculty, regulators in governmental and non-governmental agencies, and environmental companies. While this volume maintains its rigor in terms of its depth of knowledge and quantitative information, it contains the breadth needed for wide variety problems and applications in the environmental sciences. This volume presents all of the newer and older applications of isotopes pertaining to the environmental problems in one place that is readily accessible to readers. This book not only has the depth and rigor that is needed for academia, but it has the breadth and case studies to illustrate the utility of the isotopes in a wide variety of environments (atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers and streams, terrestrial environments, and sub-surface environments) and serves a large audience, from students and researchers, regulators in federal, state and local governments, and environmental companies.

Applied Isotope Hydrogeology

Author: F.J. Pearson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080875026
Format: PDF, Docs
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In 1980, Nagra, the Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, began a comprehensive field investigation programme to assess the feasibility and safety of a repository for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in northern Switzerland. An international team of scientists has carried out a comprehensive study on the isotope hydrogeology of deep groundwaters. One of the major implications of this work pertains to the storage of radioactive waste. The study goes far beyond an in-depth regional study as it draws together the results of diverse techniques, many of which have been re-evaluated or further developed. This book presents in great detail the results of one of the most comprehensive isotope hydrology studies ever undertaken.

Isoscapes

Author: Jason B. West
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048133543
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Stable isotope ratio variation in natural systems reflects the dynamics of Earth systems processes and imparts isotope labels to Earth materials. Carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric CO2 record exchange of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere; the incredible journeys of migrating monarchs is documented by hydrogen isotopes in their wings; and water carries an isotopic record of its source and history as it traverses the atmosphere and land surface. Through these and many other examples, improved understanding of spatio-temporal isotopic variation in Earth systems is leading to innovative new approaches to scientific problem-solving. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the theory, methods, and applications that are enabling new disciplinary and cross-disciplinary advances through the study of "isoscapes": isotopic landscapes. "This impressive new volume shows scientists deciphering and using the natural isotope landscapes that subtly adorn our spaceship Earth.", Brian Fry, Coastal Ecology Institute, Louisiana State University, USA "An excellent timely must read and must-have reference book for anybody interested or engaged in applying stable isotope signatures to questions in e.g. Anthropology, Biogeochemistry, Ecology, or Forensic Science regarding chronological and spatial movement, changes, or distribution relating to animals, humans, plants, or water.", Wolfram Meier-Augenstein, Centre for Anatomy & Human Identification, University of Dundee, UK "Natural resources are being affected by global change, but exactly where, how, and at what pace? Isoscapes provide new and remarkably precise answers.", John Hayes, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA "This exciting volume is shaping a new landscape in environmental sciences that is utilizing the remarkable advances in isotope research to enhance and extend the capabilities of the field.", Dan Yakir, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation

Author: C. Marjorie Aelion
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420012613
Format: PDF, ePub
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Enhanced analytical capabilities and separation techniques, improved detection limits, and accessibility of instrumentation have led to massive strides in the use of isotopes to assess microbial processes in surface and subsurface sediments. Considering the rapid growth of research and commercial interest in stable isotope and radioisotope applications for contaminant hydrology and microbial ecology, an up-to-date overview of the field is long overdue. Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation comprehensively covers established and emerging isotope methods for environmental applications, focusing on biodegradation and bioremediation. This book is an invaluable tool for researchers, practitioners, and regulators who require an extensive understanding of the application of isotope methods to natural compounds and environmental contaminants. It addresses questions including: What amount of a compound comes from anthropogenic release? Do the chemicals involved undergo degradation in the environment? Do they persist and accumulate? This book is divided into four sections: Isotope Fundamentals covers important background and theoretical information needed to understand later chapters Isotopes and Microbial Processes discusses the application of isotopes to different environmental redox conditions that dictate the predominant microbial processes that will occur Isotopes in Field Applications describes the transformation of anthropogenic pollutants and the application of isotope tools to field sites Isotope Emerging Areas addresses the use of compounds labeled with stable isotopes, including stable isotope probing and the use of radiocarbon at natural abundance and novel stable isotopes This reference details how isotope tools can be used to gain insight into the origin and fate of natural compounds and contaminants in the environment. Integrating theoretical and practical knowledge, the authors examine the principles of isotope tools and then present an extensive overview of key environmental processes that can be investigated with isotope methods. They also discuss analytical and data evaluation procedures, addressing established and emerging applications. To illustrate concepts and methodology, the authors use a wide range of case studies and recent field and laboratory research from various disciplines currently employing these methods. This book is a valuable tool for expanding the application of both stable isotopes and radioisotopes into untapped areas.