International Migration and Development in East Asia and the Pacific

Author: Ahmad Ahsan
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821399578
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region has an international emigrant population of more than 21 million people who remitted US$112 billion to their home countries in 2013. The region also hosts more than 7 million migrant workers, mostly from other Asian countries. These migrant workers account for 20 percent or more of the labor force in economies such as Malaysia and Singapore and thus play a significant role in the economies of the labor-receiving countries. An aging population in many East Asian countries will create significant labor shortages, leading to greater demand for migrant workers. For these reasons, international labor mobility is emerging as an important development issue in East Asia, with important implications for reducing poverty and supporting sustainable economic development in the region. In this context, International Migration and Development in East Asia and the Pacific analyzes the impact of migration on development of the EAP region and examines how international migration should be managed in East Asia in a way that supports development goals while simultaneously protecting the rights of migrants. The study covers trends in international migration in East Asia and overarching regional issues such as the links between macroeconomic management and remittances and the role of demographic trends in migration; the economic impact of migration and remittances on labor-sending countries and labor-receiving countries; the migration industry; and the policies and institutions that govern migration. This report shows that in labor-sending countries remittances help reduce poverty significantly by increasing income for migrants’ families. At the country level, remittances have a significant role in helping finance trade deficits and in bolstering reserves, not only in the small Pacific Island economies but also in large economies such as Vietnam and the Philippines. For labor-receiving countries, such as Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong SAR, China, migrant workers form a significant part of the workforce, especially in labor-intensive manufacturing, construction, plantation agriculture, fishing, and household services. Migrant workers thus help relieve labor shortages, boost output, and maintain competitiveness. The role of migrant workers will become more important in the future given the rapid population aging in many labor-receiving East Asian countries. Given these factors, the key question concerning international migration in East Asia and the Pacific is not whether it is desirable but how it should be managed in the future. International Migration and Development in East Asia and the Pacific discusses a range of policy options in both labor-sending and labor-receiving countries to address this question.

Managing International Migration for Development in East Asia

Author: Richard Adams
Publisher: World Bank
ISBN: 9780821398425
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume draws on a rich set of data and institutional analysis to present findings on the impact of migration on the economies of both migrant-sending and migrant-receiving countries in the East Asia and Pacific region. The papers point out that due to demographic trends in the region, managing migration is not a matter of choice but one of necessity, and that while migration has significant and positive impact there are also important policy issues that need to be addressed to enhance migration's development impact and realize its full potential. This book comprises background papers written for a companion World Bank volume, International Migration and Development in East Asia and the Pacific. The authors are leading researchers on migration and development from different countries of the region.

New Perspectives on International Migration and Development

Author: Jeronimo Cortina
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231156804
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Through pressing, current case studies, contributors examine the ubiquitous interplay among migration, development, culture, human rights, and government, all toward advancing more effective solutions to international migration issues.

East Asia and Pacific Cities

Author: Judy L. Baker
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464811032
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Urbanization in East Asia and the Pacific has created enormous opportunity for many. Yet the rapid growth of cities can also create challenges as national and local governments try to keep up with the needs of their growing populations. Among these challenges is a lack of affordable housing, resulting in increasing slums, deficits in basic service provision, and widening inequality for urban dwellers. This study aims to better understand urban poverty and inequality in East Asian cities, recognizing that many countries of the region, particularly those of middle-income status, are at a critical juncture in their urbanization and growth process where potential social divisions in cities could harm prospects for future poverty reduction. The study uses a multidimensional approach to understand urban poverty and inclusion and draws on examples of programs and policies that have been successfully implemented in the East Asia region to develop a set of guiding principles for policy makers.

East Asia Pacific at Work

Author: World Bank Group
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464800049
Format: PDF
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The unprecedented progress of East Asia Pacific is a triumph of working people. Countries that were low-income a generation ago successfully integrated into the global value chain, exploiting their labor-cost advantage. In 1990, the region held about a third of the world’s labor force. Leveraging this comparative advantage, the share of global GDP of emerging economies in East Asia Pacific grew from 7 percent in 1992 to 17 percent in 2011. Yet, the region now finds itself at a critical juncture. Work and its contribution to growth and well-being can no longer be taken for granted. The challenges range from high youth inactivity and rising inequality to binding skills shortages. A key underlying issue is economic informality, which constrains innovation and productivity, limits the tax base, and increases household vulnerability to shocks. Informality is both a consequence of stringent labor regulations and limited enforcement capacity. In several countries, de jure employment regulations are more stringent than in many parts of Europe. Even labor regulations set at reasonable levels but poorly implemented can aggravate the market failures they were designed to overcome. This report argues that the appropriate policy responses are to ensure macroeconomic stability, and in particular, a regulatory framework that encourages small- and medium-sized enterprises where most people in the region work. Mainly agrarian countries should focus on raising agricultural productivity. In urbanizing countries, good urban planning becomes critical. Pacific island countries will need to provide youth with human capital needed to succeed abroad as migrant workers. And, across the region, it is critical to ‘formalize’ more work, to increase the coverage of essential social protection, and to sustain productivity. To this end, policies should encourage mobility of labor and human capital, and not favor some forms of employment - for instance, full-time wage employment in manufacturing - over others, either implicitly or explicitly. Policies to increase growth and well-being from employment should instead reflect and support the dynamism and diversity of work forms across the region.

Wind Over Water

Author: David W. Haines
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857457411
Format: PDF, ePub
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Providing a comprehensive treatment of a full range of migrant destinies in East Asia by scholars from both Asia and North America, this volume captures the way migrants are changing the face of Asia, especially in cities, such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Hamamatsu, Osaka, Tokyo, and Singapore. It investigates how the crossing of geographical boundaries should also be recognized as a crossing of cultural and social categories that reveals the extraordinary variation in the migrants' origins and trajectories. These migrants span the spectrum: from Korean bar hostesses in Osaka to African entrepreneurs in Hong Kong, from Vietnamese women seeking husbands across the Chinese border to Pakistani Muslim men marrying women in Japan, from short-term business travelers in China to long-term tourists from Japan who ultimately decide to retire overseas. Illuminating the ways in which an Asian-based analysis of migration can yield new data on global migration patterns, the contributors provide important new theoretical insights for a broader understanding of global migration, and innovative methodological approaches to the spatial and temporal complexity of human migration.

Migration and Development

Author: Stephen Castles
Publisher: United Nations Publications
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This publication is based on the idea that remittance flows and transfers of know-how by migrants can actually reinvigorate development. But what do people in the South think about international migration? How do the migrants themselves experience international migration, and how do they understand development? This book attempts to redress the balance by initiating a South-South dialogue. It is the result of discussions among researchers, government officials and migrant activists from five major emigration countries: India, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines, and Turkey. The five country case studies present experiences of emigration over the past 50 years and analyse the consequences for economy, society and politics.

Global and Asian Perspectives on International Migration

Author: Graziano Battistella
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319083171
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume examines key aspects of the migration process that are particularly relevant in the Asian context. It looks into established concepts and theoretical propositions that have found application in other areas, particularly in the West and explores their validity and relevance in understanding the realities of migration in Asia. Global and Asian Perspectives on International Migration features the perspectives of scholars from Asia and other parts of the world, as well as diverse backgrounds. It presents a variety of forms, directions, policies and institutions, including circular and temporary migration; the management of cultural diversity; the gender perspective on migration in North America, Europe and Asia; returning migrants; migration governance in the ASEAN economic community; and the determinants of migration. In conclusion, the book explores migration transition in Asia and revisits select theories in light of recent evidence. With its dialogic approach to migration in Asia by renowned authors from various regions and disciplines, this book will serve as a valuable resource to policy makers in research and academia, civil society, international organizations and the private sector.

Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016

Author: Dilip Ratha
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 146480320X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Remittances remain a key source of funds for developing countries, far exceeding official development assistance and even foreign direct investment. Remittances have proved to be more stable than private debt and portfolio equity flows, and less volatile than official aid flows, and their annual flow can match or surpass foreign exchange reserves in many small countries. Even in large emerging markets, such as India, remittances are equivalent to at least a quarter of total foreign exchange reserves. India, China, Philippines and Mexico are the top recipients of migrant remittances. The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 attempts to present numbers and facts behind the stories of international migration and remittances, drawing on authoritative, publicly available data. It provides a snapshot of statistics on immigration, emigration, skilled emigration, and remittance flows for 210 countries and 15 regional and income groups. The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 updates the 2011 edition of the Factbook with additional data on bilateral migration and remittances and second generation diasporas, collected from various sources, including national censuses, labor force surveys, population registers, and other national sources.