Micronutrient Deficiencies in Global Crop Production

Author: Brian J. Alloway
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402068607
Format: PDF
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A deficiency of one or more of the eight plant micronutrients (boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and zinc) will adversely affect both the yield and quality of crops. Micronutrient deficiencies in crops occur in many parts of the world, at various scales (from one to millions of hectares), but differences in soil conditions, climate, crop genotypes and management, result in marked variations in their occurrence. The causes, effects and alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies in crops in: Australia, India, China, Turkey, the Near East, Africa, Europe, South America and the United States of America, are covered, and these are representative of most of the different conditions under which crops are grown anywhere in the world. Links between low contents of iodine, iron and zinc (human micronutrients) in staple grains and the incidence of human health problems are discussed, together with the ways in which the micronutrient content of food crops can be increased and their bioavailability to humans improved. Detailed treatment of topics, such as: soil types associated with deficiencies, soil testing and plant analysis, field experiments, innovative treatments, micronutrients in the subsoil, nutrient interactions, effects of changing cropping systems, micronutrient budgets and hidden deficiencies in various chapters provides depth to the broad coverage of the book. This book provides a valuable guide to the requirements of crops for plant micronutrients and the causes, occurrence and treatment of deficiencies. It is essential reading for many agronomy, plant nutrition and agricultural extension professionals.

Plant Micronutrients

Author: C P Sharma
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781578084166
Format: PDF, ePub
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Phenomenal progress has been made in our understanding of the several and diverse ways in which micronutrients alter or regulate the functioning of plants and produce a wide array of responses enabling quantitative and qualitative changes in plant yield. This book addresses biochemical and physiological roles of micronutrients in plants and the diverse ways in which they react to limitations in micronutrients supply, contributing to global constraints in crop production. The book is presented in two parts. Part I deals with roles of micronutrients and the changes induced in plants in response to their inadequate supply. Part II addresses the factors contributing to micronutrients deficiency, their diagnosis, evaluation and management through soil ? and plant ?based approaches.

Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies

Author: Brian Thompson
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845937147
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book, inclusive of 19 chapters, provides discussions on the benefits and limitations of food-based approaches for the prevention and control of micronutrient malnutrition. Different chapters focus on specific relevant topics, including current developments in food-based approaches and their program applications, relevance of agricultural interventions to nutrition, impact of multi-sectoral programmes with food-based approaches components in alleviating undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition, animal-source foods as a food-based approach to address nutrient deficiencies, aquaculture's role in improving food and nutrition security, benefits of vegetables and fruits in preventing and combating micronutrient malnutrition, benefits of food-based approaches for overcoming single specific micronutrient deficiencies, and food fortification. This book will be of great use to professionals interested in public health, human nutrition, micronutrient deficiency interventions, food and nutrition security policy interventions, and agricultural research.

Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency

Author: Mohammad Anwar Hossain
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128112948
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency presents an up-to-date overview of the latest research on the molecular and genetic basis of macro-nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants, and strategies that can be used to improve NUE and nutrient-associated stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant NUE is a measure of how efficiently plants use available nutrients and an understanding of plant NUE has the potential to help improve the use of limited natural resources and to help achieve global food security. This book presents information important for the development of crop plants with improved macro-NUE, a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop production into noncompetitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and for helping to prevent environmental contamination. Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency provides a comprehensive overview of the complex mechanisms regulating macro-NUE in crop plants, which is required if plant breeders are to develop modern crop varieties that are more resilient to nutrient-associated stress. Identification of genes responsible for macro-NUE and nutrient-related stress tolerance in crop plants will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with the responses of crop plants to nutrient stress. This volume contains both fundamental and advanced information, and critical commentaries useful for those in all fields of plant science research. Provides details of molecular and genetic aspects of NUE in crop plants and model plant systems Presents information on major macronutrients, nutrient sensing and signaling, and the molecular and genomic issues associated with primary and secondary macronutrients Delivers information on how molecular genetic information associated with NUE can be used to develop plant breeding programs Includes contributions from world-leading plant nutrition research groups

Plant Nutrition of Greenhouse Crops

Author: Cees Sonneveld
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048125326
Format: PDF
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Greenhouse cultivation is noted for its high uptake of minerals, consistent climatic conditions, exclusion of natural precipitation and control of salt accumulation. Acknowledging that plant nutrition in greenhouse cultivation differs in many essentials from field production, this volume details specific information about testing methods for soils and substrates in a greenhouse environment. It does so while offering a universally applicable analysis. This is based on the composition of the soil and substrate solutions, methods for the interpretation of tissue tests, and crop responses on salinity and water supply in relation to fertilizer application. Fertilizer additions, related to analytical data of soil and substrate samples, are presented for a wide range of vegetable and ornamental crops. The subject is especially apt now as substrate growing offers excellent possibilities for the optimal use of water and nutrients, as well as the potential for sustainable production methods for greenhouse crops.

Hidden Hunger

Author: Aya Hirata Kimura
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801467683
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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For decades, NGOs targeting world hunger focused on ensuring that adequate quantities of food were being sent to those in need. In the 1990s, the international food policy community turned its focus to the "hidden hunger" of micronutrient deficiencies, a problem that resulted in two scientific solutions: fortification, the addition of nutrients to processed foods, and biofortification, the modification of crops to produce more nutritious yields. This hidden hunger was presented as a scientific problem to be solved by "experts" and scientifically engineered smart foods rather than through local knowledge, which was deemed unscientific and, hence, irrelevant. In Hidden Hunger, Aya Hirata Kimura explores this recent emphasis on micronutrients and smart foods within the international development community and, in particular, how the voices of women were silenced despite their expertise in food purchasing and preparation. Kimura grounds her analysis in case studies of attempts to enrich and market three basic foods-rice, wheat flour, and baby food-in Indonesia. She shows the power of nutritionism and how its technical focus enhanced the power of corporations as a government partner while restricting public participation in the making of policy for public health and food. She also analyzes the role of advertising to promote fortified foodstuffs and traces the history of Golden Rice, a crop genetically engineered to alleviate vitamin A deficiencies. Situating the recent turn to smart food in Indonesia and elsewhere as part of a long history of technical attempts to solve the Third World food problem, Kimura deftly analyzes the intersection of scientific expertise, market forces, and gendered knowledge to illuminate how hidden hunger ultimately defined women as victims rather than as active agents.

Micronutrients in Tropical Food Crop Production

Author: Paul Vlek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400950551
Format: PDF
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The mission of the International Fertilizer Development Center is to increase food production through the improvement of fertilizers and fertilizer practices for the developing countries with special emphasis on tropical and subtropical agriculture. The principal aim is to ensure that fertilizer technology is not a limiting factor to food production in those regions. Although the full extent to which deficiency of micronutrients hampers food production is yet un known, there is ample evidence that problem areas exist and more will be identified as crop production is intensified and marginal lands are exploited. Therefore, it seems fully appropriate at this time that IFDC, as an international organization, take a leadership role in developing micronutrient fertilizer technology appropriate for the tropics and subtropics. The gravity of micronutrient deficiency as a limiting factor to crop pro duction varies from crop to crop and from soil to soil. The effects may range from slight yield reductions to complete crop failure. While the economic impact of omitting micronutrients in seriously affected areas (e.g., Zn in Brazilian Cerrado) is convincing, it is difficult to estimate the yearly loss in crop production due to unsuspected micronutrient deficiency. Active soil and crop testing programs in regions with advanced agricultural systems are aimed at recognizing micronutrients as a limiting plant nutrient in time to allow corrective measures and prevent yield loss. Successful micronutrient monitoring systems are generally limited to developed economies or to developing economies producing export cash crops.

Nitrogen Management in Crop Production

Author: Nand Kumar Fageria
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 148222285X
Format: PDF, ePub
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One of the main approaches for safeguarding food security, sustainable development has increased demand for knowledge on fertilizer management in crop production. Among essential plant nutrients, nitrogen is one of the most important yield-limiting nutrients, mainly responsible for determining yield and yield components in cereals and legumes. It is also responsible for the activation of many enzymes and, of course, plays an important role in photosynthesis. With a recovery efficiency of less than 50 percent in most cropping systems, a large portion of the nitrogen applied as fertilizer is not used by plants, creating environmental and economic issues. Nitrogen Management in Crop Production covers the critical aspects for the judicious use of nitrogen in cropping systems. This includes appropriate methods of nitrogen application, effective source and timing of application during crop growth cycles, use of an adequate application rate to avoid loss and reduce cost, use of nitrogen-efficient crop genotypes, and use of legumes that fix sufficient amounts of atmospheric nitrogen. There is also a chapter on organic matter and its role in sustainability. This book presents recent information from the international literature, making it relevant for most agroecological regions. Chapters provide experimental results to aid in practical application of the information. The book contains color photos of nitrogen deficiency symptoms to serve as a guide for important crop species, such as rice, dry bean, wheat, soybean, and corn. It also includes numerous tables and figures, providing an easy-to-read reference.

Mineral Nutrition of Rice

Author: N.K. Fageria
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466558075
Format: PDF
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The third most important cereal crop after wheat and corn, rice is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population. This includes regions of high population density and rapid growth, indicating that rice will continue to be a major food crop in the next century. Mineral Nutrition of Rice brings together a wealth of information on the ecophysiology and nutrient requirements of rice. Compiling the latest scientific research, the book explains how to manage essential nutrients to maximize rice yield. The book examines 15 essential or beneficial nutrients used in irrigated, upland, and floating rice across a range of geographic regions. For each mineral, the text details the cycle in the soil–plant system as well as the mineral’s functions, deficiency symptoms, uptake in plants, harvest index, and use efficiency. It then outlines management practices, covering application methods and timing, adequate rates, the use of efficient genotypes, and more. The author, an internationally recognized expert in mineral nutrition for crop plants, also proposes recommendations for the judicious use of fertilizers to reduce the cost of crop production and the risk of environmental pollution. Color photographs help readers identify nutrient deficiency symptoms and take the necessary corrective measures. Packed with useful tables and illustrations, this comprehensive reference guides readers who want to know how to increase rice yield, reduce production costs, and avoid environmental pollution from fertilizers. It offers practical information for those working in agricultural research fields, in laboratories, and in classrooms around the world.