Principles of Evolution Systems Species and the History of Life

Author: Jonathan Bard
Publisher: Garland Science
ISBN: 1351854771
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Principles of Evolution considers evolution in the context of systems biology, a contemporary approach for handling biological complexity. Evolution needs this systems perspective for three reasons. First, most activity in living organisms is driven by complex networks of proteins and this has direct implications, particularly for understanding evo-devo and for seeing how variation is initiated. Second, it provides the natural language for discussing phylogenetic trees. Third, evolutionary change involves events at levels ranging from the genome to the ecosystem and systems biology provides a context for integrating material of this complexity. Understanding evolution means, on the one hand, describing the history of life and, on the other, making sense of the principles that drove that history. The solution adopted here is to make the science of evolution the primary focus of the book and place the various parts of the history of life in the context of the research that unpicks it. This means that the history is widely distributed across the text. This concise textbook assumes that the reader has a fair amount of biological knowledge and gives equal weight to all the major themes of evolution: the fossil record, phylogenetics, evodevo, and speciation. Principles of Evolution will therefore be an interesting and thought-provoking read for honors-level undergraduates, and graduates working in the biological sciences.

Genetic Association Studies Background Conduct Analysis Interpretation

Author: Mehmet Tevfik Dorak
Publisher: Garland Science
ISBN: 1351806432
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Genetic Association Studies is designed for students of public health, epidemiology, and the health sciecnes, covering the main principles of molecular genetics, population genetics, medical genetics, epidemiology and statistics. It presents a balanced view of genetic associations with coverage of candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide association studies. All aspects of a genetic association study are included, from the lab to analysis and interpretation of results, but also bioinformatics approaches to causality assessment. The role of the environment in genetic disease is also highlighted. Genetic Association Studies will enable readers to understand and critique genetic association studies and set them on the way to designing, executing, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting their own.

Adaptation and Natural Selection

Author: George Christopher Williams
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400820108
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Biological evolution is a fact--but the many conflicting theories of evolution remain controversial even today. In 1966, simple Darwinism, which holds that evolution functions primarily at the level of the individual organism, was threatened by opposing concepts such as group selection, a popular idea stating that evolution acts to select entire species rather than individuals. George Williams's famous argument in favor of the Darwinists struck a powerful blow to those in opposing camps. His Adaptation and Natural Selection, now a classic of science literature, is a thorough and convincing essay in defense of Darwinism; its suggestions for developing effective principles for dealing with the evolution debate and its relevance to many fields outside biology ensure the timelessness of this critical work.

Metaphysics and the Origin of Species

Author: Michael T. Ghiselin
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791434673
Format: PDF, ePub
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In explaining his individuality thesis, Michael T. Ghiselin provides extended discussions of such philosophical topics as definition, the reality of various kinds of groups, and how we classify traits and processes. He develops and applies the implications for general biology and other sciences and makes the case that a better understanding of species and of classification in general puts biologists and paleontologists in a much better position to understand nature in general, and such processes as extinction in particular.

Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution

Author: Daniel I. Rubenstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400858143
Format: PDF, ePub
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Seeking common principles of social evolution in different taxonomic groups, the contributors to this volume discuss eighteen groups of birds and mammals for which long-term field studies have been carried out. They examine how social organization is shaped by the interaction between proximate ecological pressures and culture"--the social traditions already in place and shaped by local and phylogenetic history. Originally published in 1987. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Evolution Games and God

Author: Martin A. Nowak
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674075536
Format: PDF
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Evolution, Games, and God explores how cooperation and altruism, alongside mutation and natural selection, play a critical role in evolution, from microbes to human societies. Inheriting a tendency to cooperate and self-sacrifice on behalf of others may be as beneficial to a population’s survival as the self-preserving instincts of individuals.

Evolutionary Systems

Author: G. Vijver
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401715106
Format: PDF
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The three well known revolutions of the past centuries - the Copernican, the Darwinian and the Freudian - each in their own way had a deflating and mechanizing effect on the position of humans in nature. They opened up a richness of disillusion: earth acquired a more modest place in the universe, the human body and mind became products of a long material evolutionary history, and human reason, instead of being the central, immaterial, locus of understanding, was admitted into the theater of discourse only as a materialized and frequently out-of-control actor. Is there something objectionable to this picture? Formulated as such, probably not. Why should we resist the idea that we are in certain ways, and to some degree, physically, biologically or psychically determined? Why refuse to acknowledge the fact that we are materially situated in an ever evolving world? Why deny that the ways of inscription (traces of past events and processes) are co-determinative of further "evolutionary pathways"? Why minimize the idea that each intervention, of each natural being, is temporally and materially situated, and has, as such, the inevitable consequence of changing the world? The point is, however, that there are many, more or less radically different, ways to consider the "mechanization" of man and nature. There are, in particular, many ways to get the message of "material and evolutionary determination", as well as many levels at which this determination can be thought of as relevant or irrelevant.

Systems and Models

Author: Hartmut Bossel
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3833481218
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A multitude of complex systems and actors pursuing their own agenda shape the dynamics of our world. Better understanding of their actions and interactions is crucial, and can be achieved by a profound knowledge of systems and their properties, and their representation in models allowing simulation of probable behavior. Drawing on his extensive research and teaching experience in modeling and simulation of a wide range of systems - from engineering to social systems and ecosystems - the author presents the fundamental concepts and approaches for understanding and modeling the complex systems shaping the dynamics of our world. The book applies state space analysis and system dynamics to deal with the dynamic processes of "causal systems," discusses information processing approaches for modeling decision processes of "actors" and "agents," and uses aspects of the coevolutionary development of systems in their environment to deal with normative orientation, ethics, and evaluation of policies and long-term development. The concepts are applied in particular to the issue of sustainable development of human society in an evolving world. The book is complemented by a survey of system topics and of models from many fields, and by an extensive bibliography on the many systems-related subjects covered. Hartmut Bossel is Professor Emeritus of environmental systems analysis. He taught for many years at the University of California in Santa Barbara and the University of Kassel, Germany, where he was director of the Center for Environmental Systems Research until his retirement. He holds an engineering degree from the Technical University of Darmstadt, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Berkeley. With a background in engineering, systems science, and mathematical modeling, he has led many research projects and future studies in different countries, developing computer simulation models and decision support systems in the areas of energy supply policy, global dynamics, orientation of behavior, agricultural policy, and forest dynamics and management. He has written numerous books on modeling and simulation of dynamic systems, social change and future paths, and has published widely in the scientific literature in several fields. Bossel is author of a System Zoo containing over one hundred simulation models of diverse systems.

Principles of Plant Breeding

Author: Robert Wayne Allard
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471023098
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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As ancient as agriculture itself, plant breeding is one of civilization\'s oldest activities. Today, world food production is more dependent than ever on the successful cultivation of only a handful of major crops, while continuing advances in agriculture rely on successfully breeding new varieties that are well-adapted to their human-influenced ecological circumstances. Plant breeding involves elements of both natural and cultural selection-a process which operates on individual plants and on plant populations. This book offers the most recent detailed knowledge of plant reproduction and their environmental interaction, which can help guide new breeding programs and help insure continuing progress in providing more food for growing populations produced with better care of the environment.

Evolution

Author: Michael Denton
Publisher: Adler & Adler Pub
ISBN: 9780917561528
Format: PDF, Docs
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Explains how rapidly accumulating evidence is threatening the basic assumptions of orthodox Darwinism