Miniature Joule Thomson Cryocooling

Author: Ben-Zion Maytal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441982841
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book is the first in English being entirely dedicated to Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling. The category of Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers takes us back to the roots of cryogenics, in 1895, with figures like Linde and Hampson. The "cold finger" of these cryocoolers is compact, lacks moving parts, and sustains a large heat flux extraction at a steady temperature. Potentially, they cool down unbeatably fast. For example, cooling to below 100 K (minus 173 Celsius) might be accomplished within only a few seconds by liquefying argon. A level of about 120 K can be reached almost instantly with krypton. Indeed, the species of coolant plays a central role dictating the size, the intensity and the level of cryocooling. It is the JT effect that drives these cryocoolers and reflects the deviation of the "real" gas from the ideal gas properties. The nine chapters of the book are arranged in five parts. •The Common Principle of Cyrocoolers shared across the broad variety of cryocooler types •Theoretical Aspects: the JT effect and its inversion, cooling potential of coolants, the liquefaction process, sizing of heat exchangers, level of pressurization, discharge of pressure vessels • Practical Aspects: modes of operation (fast cooldown, continuous, multi-staging, hybrid cryocoolers), pressure sources, configuration, construction and technologies, flow adjustment, MEMS, open and closed cycle, cooldown process and similarity, transient behavior • Mixed Coolant cryocooling: theory, practice and applications • Special Topics: real gas choked flow rates, gas purity, clog formation, optimal fixed orifice, modeling, cryosurgical devices, warming by the inverse JT effect The theoretical aspects may be of interest not only to those working with cryocoolers but also for others with a general interest in "real" gas thermodynamics, such as, for example, the inversion of the JT effect in its differential and integral forms, and the exceptional behavior of the quantum gases. A detailed list of references for each chapter comprises a broad literature survey. It consists of more than 1,200 relevant publications and 450 related patents. The systematically organized content, arranged under a thorough hierarchy of headings, supported by 227 figures and 41 tables, and accompanied by various chronological notes of evolution, enables readers a friendly interaction with the book. Dr. Ben-Zion Maytal is a Senior Researcher at Rafael-Advanced Defense Systems, Ltd., and an Adjunct Senior Teaching Fellow at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. Prof. John M. Pfotenhauer holds a joint appointment in the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Physics at the University of Wisconsin - Madison.

Low Temperature Materials and Mechanisms

Author: Yoseph Bar-Cohen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315354675
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book addresses the growing interest in low temperature technologies. Since the subject of low temperature materials and mechanisms is multidisciplinary, the chapters reflect the broadest possible perspective of the field. Leading experts in the specific subject area address the various related science and engineering chemistry, material science, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, and physics.

The Art of Cryogenics

Author: Guglielmo Ventura
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080554369
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Cryogenics is the study of low temperature interactions - temperatures well below those existing in the natural universe. The book covers a large spectrum of experimental cases, including basic vacuum techniques, indispensable in cryogenics. Guidance in solving experimental problems and numerous numerical examples are given, as are examples of the applications of cryogenics in such areas as underground detectors and space applications. Updated tables of low-temperature data on materials are also presented, and the book is supplemented with a rich bibliography. Researchers (graduate and above) in the fields of physics, engineering and chemistry with an interest in the technology and applications of low-temperature measurements, will find this book invaluable. Experiments described in technical detail Description of newest cryogenic apparatus Applications in multidisciplinary areas Data on cryogenic properties of new materials Current reference review

Cryogenic Mixed Refrigerant Processes

Author: Gadhiraju Venkatarathnam
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387785141
Format: PDF, Docs
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Most conventional cryogenic refrigerators and liquefiers operate with pure fluids, the major exception being natural gas liquefiers that use mixed refrigerant processes. The fundamental aspects of mixed refrigerant processes, though very innovative, have not received the due attention in open literature in view of commercial interests. Hundreds of patents exist on different aspects of mixed refrigerant processes. However, it is difficult to piece together the existing information to choose an appropriate process and an optimum composition or a given application. The aim of the book is to teach (a.) the need for refrigerant mixtures, (b.) the type of mixtures that can be used for different refrigeration and liquefaction applications, (c.) the different processes that can be used and (d.) the methods to be adopted for choosing the components of a mixture and their concentration for different applications.

A Heat Transfer Textbook

Author: John H Lienhard
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486318370
Format: PDF, Docs
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This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' insight into related phenomena. Three introductory chapters form a minicourse in heat transfer, covering all of the subjects discussed in detail in subsequent chapters. This unique and effective feature introduces heat exchangers early in the development, rather than at the end. The authors also present a novel and simplified method for dimensional analysis, and they capitalize on the similarity of natural convection and film condensation to develop these two topics in a parallel manner. Worked examples and end-of-chapter exercises appear throughout the book, along with well-drawn, illuminating figures.