Proportionality and the Rule of Law

Author: Grant Huscroft
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107064074
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"To speak of human rights is to speak of proportionality. It is no exaggeration to claim that proportionality has overtaken rights as the orienting idea in contemporary human rights law and scholarship. Proportionality has been received into the constitutional doctrine of courts in continental Europe, the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, Israel, and South Africa, as well as the jurisprudence of treaty-based legal systems like the European Court of Human Rights, giving rise to claims of a global model, a received approach, or, simply, the best-practice standard of rights adjudication. Even in the United States, which is widely understood to have formally rejected proportionality, some argue that the various levels of scrutiny adopted by the US Supreme Court are analogous to the standard questions posed by proportionality. As proportionality scholars are well aware, some of the early literature on balancing and rights is American, with special reference to the First Amendment. Notwithstanding proportionality's popularity, there is no consensus on its methodology. Much less does the use of a proportionality doctrine guarantee consensus on substantive rights questions. What the principle of proportionality promises is a common analytical framework, a framework the significance of which is not in its ubiquity (a mere fact), but because its structure influences (some would say controls) how courts reason to conclusions in many of the great moral and political questions confronting political communities. As a framework, proportionality analysis is superficially straightforward, setting out four questions in evaluating whether the limitation of a right is justifiable. A serviceable - but by no means canonical"--

Proportionality and the Rule of Law

Author: Grant Huscroft
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107647954
Format: PDF, Mobi
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To speak of human rights in the twenty-first century is to speak of proportionality. Proportionality has been received into the constitutional doctrine of courts in continental Europe, the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, Israel, South Africa, and the United States, as well as the jurisprudence of treaty-based legal systems such as the European Convention on Human Rights. Proportionality provides a common analytical framework for resolving the great moral and political questions confronting political communities. But behind the singular appeal to proportionality lurks a range of different understandings. This volume brings together many of the world's leading constitutional theorists - proponents and critics of proportionality - to debate the merits of proportionality, the nature of rights, the practice of judicial review, and moral and legal reasoning. Their essays provide important new perspectives on this leading doctrine in human rights law.

Proportionality Equality Laws and Religion

Author: Megan Pearson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317074556
Format: PDF
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This book considers how the law should manage conflicts between the right of religious freedom and that of non-discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. These disputes are often high-profile and frequently receive a lot of media attention and public debate. Starting from the basis that both these rights are valuable and worthy of protection, but that such disputes are often characterised by animosity, it contends that a proportionality analysis provides the best method for resolving these conflicts. The work takes a comparative approach, examining the law in England and Wales, Canada, and the USA and examines four main areas of law, considering how a proportionality approach could be used in each. The book will be an invaluable resource for students and researchers in the areas of Public Law, Human Rights Law, Law and Religion, Discrimination Law, and Comparative Law.

Proportionality

Author: Aharon Barak
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107401198
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Having identified proportionality as the main tool for limiting constitutional rights, Aharon Barak explores its four components (proper purpose, rational connection, necessity and proportionality stricto sensu) and discusses the relationships between proportionality and reasonableness and between courts and legislation. He goes on to analyse the concept of deference and to consider the main arguments against the use of proportionality (incommensurability and irrationality). Alternatives to proportionality are compared and future developments of proportionality are suggested.

Balancing Constitutional Rights

Author: Jacco Bomhoff
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107044413
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A comparative and historical account of the origins and meanings of the discourse of judicial 'balancing' in constitutional rights law.

A Critique of Proportionality and Balancing

Author: Francisco Urbina
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107175062
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book offers a comprehensive critique of the principle of proportionality and balancing as applied to human and constitutional rights.

A Theory of Constitutional Rights

Author: Robert Alexy
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199584230
Format: PDF
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This classic work of constitutional theory analyzes the general structure of constitutional rights and their judicial application. It deals with a wide range of problems common to all systems of constitutional rights review - from balancing rights to deciding the limits of their scope.

The Negotiable Constitution

Author: Grégoire C. N. Webber
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521111234
Format: PDF, ePub
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Grégoire C. N. Webber explores how open-ended constitutional rights leave a constitution open to re-negotiation by the political process.

Proportionality and Constitutional Culture

Author: Moshe Cohen-Eliya
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107244757
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Although the most important constitutional doctrine worldwide, a thorough cultural and historical examination of proportionality has not taken place until now. This comparison of proportionality with its counterpart in American constitutional law - balancing - shows how culture and history can create deep differences in seemingly similar doctrines. Owing to its historical origin in Germany, proportionality carries to this day a pro-rights association, while the opposite is the case for balancing. In addition, European legal and political culture has shaped proportionality as intrinsic to the state's role in realizing shared values, while in the United States a suspicion-based legal and political culture has shaped balancing in more pragmatic and instrumental terms. Although many argue that the USA should converge on proportionality, the book shows that a complex web of cultural associations make it an unlikely prospect.

Proportionality and Judicial Activism

Author: Niels Petersen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107177987
Format: PDF, ePub
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The principle of proportionality is currently one of the most discussed topics in the field of comparative constitutional law. Many critics claim that courts use the proportionality test as an instrument of judicial self-empowerment. Proportionality and Judicial Activism tests this hypothesis empirically; it systematically and comparatively analyses the fundamental rights jurisprudence of the Canadian Supreme Court, the German Federal Constitutional Court and the South African Constitutional Court. The book shows that the proportionality test does give judges a considerable amount of discretion. However, this analytical openness does not necessarily lead to judicial activism. Instead, judges are faced with significant institutional constraints, as a result of which all three examined courts refrain from using proportionality for purposes of judicial activism.