Tainted Earth

Author: Marianne Sullivan
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 0813570921
Format: PDF, Docs
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Smelting is an industrial process involving the extraction of metal from ore. During this process, impurities in ore—including arsenic, lead, and cadmium—may be released from smoke stacks, contaminating air, water, and soil with toxic-heavy metals. The problem of public health harm from smelter emissions received little official attention for much for the twentieth century. Though people living near smelters periodically complained that their health was impaired by both sulfur dioxide and heavy metals, for much of the century there was strong deference to industry claims that smelter operations were a nuisance and not a serious threat to health. It was only when the majority of children living near the El Paso, Texas, smelter were discovered to be lead-exposed in the early 1970s that systematic, independent investigation of exposure to heavy metals in smelting communities began. Following El Paso, an even more serious led poisoning epidemic was discovered around the Bunker Hill smelter in northern Idaho. In Tacoma, Washington, a copper smelter exposed children to arsenic—a carcinogenic threat. Thoroughly grounded in extensive archival research, Tainted Earth traces the rise of public health concerns about nonferrous smelting in the western United States, focusing on three major facilities: Tacoma, Washington; El Paso, Texas; and Bunker Hill, Idaho. Marianne Sullivan documents the response from community residents, public health scientists, the industry, and the government to pollution from smelters as well as the long road to protecting public health and the environment. Placing the environmental and public health aspects of smelting in historical context, the book connects local incidents to national stories on the regulation of airborne toxic metals. The nonferrous smelting industry has left a toxic legacy in the United States and around the world. Unless these toxic metals are cleaned up, they will persist in the environment and may sicken people—children in particular—for generations to come. The twentieth-century struggle to control smelter pollution shares many similarities with public health battles with such industries as tobacco and asbestos where industry supported science created doubt about harm, and reluctant government regulators did not take decisive action to protect the public’s health.

A Systematic Review of Key Issues in Public Health

Author: Stefania Boccia
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319136208
Format: PDF, Docs
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This wide-ranging study reviews the state of public health worldwide and presents informed recommendations for real-world solutions. Identifying the most urgent challenges in the field, from better understanding the causes of acute diseases and chronic conditions to reducing health inequities, it reports on cost-effective, science-based, ethically sound interventions. Chapters demonstrate bedrock skills essential to developing best practices, including flexible thinking for entrenched problems, conducting health impact assessments, and working with decision-makers. From these current findings come long-term practice and policy goals for preventing disease, promoting health, and improving quality of life, both locally and globally. A sampling of the topics covered: · Health trends of communicable diseases. · Epidemiology of cancer and principles of prevention. · Respiratory diseases and health disorders related to indoor and outdoor air pollution. · Public health gerontology and active aging. · Migrant and ethnic minority health. · Public health genomics. A Systematic Review of Key Issues in Public Health offers graduate students in the discipline a firm grasp on the field as it presently stands, and a clear set of directions for its potential future.

Occupational and Environmental Health

Author: Barry S. Levy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190662670
Format: PDF
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This thoroughly updated Fifth Edition is a comprehensive, practical guide to recognizing, preventing, and treating work-related and environmentally-induced injuries and diseases. Chapters by experts in medicine, industry, labor, government, safety, ergonomics, environmental health, and psychology address the full range of clinical and public health concerns. Numerous case studies, photographs, drawings, graphs, and tables help readers understand key concepts. This edition features new chapters on environmental health, including water pollution, hazardous waste, global environmental hazards, the role of nongovernmental organizations in environmental health, and responding to community environmental health concerns. Other new chapters cover conducting workplace investigations and assessing and enforcing compliance with health and safety regulations.

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals

Author: Gunnar F. Nordberg
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123973392
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fourth Edition bridges the gap between established knowledgebase and new advances in metal toxicology to provide one essential reference for all those involved in the field. This book provides comprehensive coverage of basic toxicological data, emphasizing toxic effects primarily in humans, but also those of animals and biological systems in vitro. The fourth edition also contains several new chapters on important topics such as nanotoxicology, metals in prosthetics and dental implants, gene-environment interaction, neurotoxicology, metals in food, renal, cardiovascular, and diabetes effects of metal exposures and more. Volume I covers “General Considerations and Volume II is devoted to “Specific Metals. A multidisciplinary resource with contributions from internationally-recognized experts, the fourth edition of the Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals is a prominent and indispensable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, engineers, and all those involved in the toxicity of metals. Contains 61 peer reviewed chapters dealing with the effects of metallic elements and their compounds on biological systems Includes information on sources, transport and transformation of metals in the environment and on certain aspects of the ecological effects of metals to provide a basis for better understanding of the potential for adverse effects on human health Covers the toxicology of metallic nanomaterials in a new comprehensive chapter Metal toxicology in developing countries is dealt with in another new chapter emphasizing the adverse effects on human health by the inadequate handling of "ewaste Other new chapters in the 4th edition include: Toxic metals in food; Toxicity of metals released from medical devices; Gene-environment interactions; Neurotoxicology of metals; Cardiovascular disease; Renal effects of exposure to metals; Gold and gold mining; Iridium; Lanthanum; Lithium and Rhodium

Teaching Environmental Health to Children

Author: David W. Hursh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400718111
Format: PDF, ePub
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Every day we are exposed to toxins and toxicants that can impact our health. Yet we rarely teach elementary and secondary students about these exposures and how they can reduce their risk to them. In this book we highlight activities and curriculum developed at nine universities in the United States from a grant funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Our goal is to extend these lessons to a global audience and for classroom teachers of all subjects and age levels to include environmental health in their teaching. ‘An invaluable tool for equipping informed citizens to think about the environment and its human impacts --both the science, and equally important, the social and ethical dimensions’ , Howard Frumkin, M.D., Dr. P.H., Dean, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

Earth Materials and Health

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309164498
Format: PDF, ePub
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A range of natural earth materials, like arsenic or fluoride, have long been linked to significant human health effects. Improved understanding of the pervasive and complex interactions between earth materials and human health will require creative collaborations between earth scientists and public health professionals. At the request of the National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, this National Research Council book assesses the current state of knowledge at the interface between the earth sciences and public health disciplines. The book identifies high-priority areas for collaborative research, including understanding the transport and bioavailability of potentially hazardous earth materials, using risk-based scenarios to mitigate the public health effects of natural hazards under current and future climate regimes, and understanding the health risks that result from disturbance of earth systems. Geospatial information - geological maps for earth scientists and epidemiological data for public health professionals - is identified as one of the essential integrative tools that is fundamental to the activities of both communities. The book also calls for increased data sharing between agencies to promote interdisciplinary research without compromising privacy.

Lead Wars

Author: Gerald Markowitz
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520283937
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In this incisive examination of lead poisoning during the past half century, Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner focus on one of the most contentious and bitter battles in the history of public health. Lead Wars details how the nature of the epidemic has changed and highlights the dilemmas public health agencies face today in terms of prevention strategies and chronic illness linked to low levels of toxic exposure. The authors use the opinion by Maryland’s Court of Appeals—which considered whether researchers at Johns Hopkins University’s prestigious Kennedy Krieger Institute (KKI) engaged in unethical research on 108 African-American children—as a springboard to ask fundamental questions about the practice and future of public health. Lead Wars chronicles the obstacles faced by public health workers in the conservative, pro-business, anti-regulatory climate that took off in the Reagan years and that stymied efforts to eliminate lead from the environments and the bodies of American children.

A Community Guide to Environmental Health

Author: Jeff Conant
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780942364569
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"Covers topics: community mobilization; water source protection, purification and borne diseases; sanitation; mosquito-borne diseases; deforestation and reforestation; farming; pesticides and toxics; solid waste and health care waste; harm from mining and oil extraction. Includes group activities and appropriate technology instructions."

Waste Incineration and Public Health

Author: Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030906371X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Incineration has been used widely for waste disposal, including household, hazardous, and medical waste--but there is increasing public concern over the benefits of combusting the waste versus the health risk from pollutants emitted during combustion. Waste Incineration and Public Health informs the emerging debate with the most up-to-date information available on incineration, pollution, and human health--along with expert conclusions and recommendations for further research and improvement of such areas as risk communication. The committee provides details on: Processes involved in incineration and how contaminants are released. Environmental dynamics of contaminants and routes of human exposure. Tools and approaches for assessing possible human health effects. Scientific concerns pertinent to future regulatory actions. The book also examines some of the social, psychological, and economic factors that affect the communities where incineration takes place and addresses the problem of uncertainty and variation in predicting the health effects of incineration processes.

Environmental Medicine

Author: Jon G. Ayres
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1444128442
Format: PDF, Docs
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Environmental Medicine is an indispensable aid to the investigation, diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of environmentally-acquired disorders. It brings into sharp focus the increasing importance of the practice of environmental medicine, drawing together the many different strands that make up this modern discipline, and putting topical and controversial subjects into evidence-based context. The editors and authors are all leading authorities in their respective fields and are drawn from a wide variety of sources, including government advisory bodies. They have put emphasis on the issues most relevant to contemporary pratice, ensuring everyday relevance, while not neglecting less common conditions. Boxes and tables are used throughout for clarity and accessibility.