The Dappled World

Author: Nancy Cartwright
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521644112
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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It is often supposed that the spectacular successes of our modern mathematical sciences support a lofty vision of a world completely ordered by one single elegant theory. In this book Nancy Cartwright argues to the contrary. When we draw our image of the world from the way modern science works - as empiricism teaches us we should - we end up with a world where some features are precisely ordered, others are given to rough regularity and still others behave in their own diverse ways. This patchwork makes sense when we realise that laws are very special productions of nature, requiring very special arrangements for their generation. Combining classic and newly written essays on physics and economics, The Dappled World carries important philosophical consequences and offers serious lessons for both the natural and the social sciences.

The Dappled World

Author: Nancy Cartwright
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139936360
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
It is often supposed that the spectacular successes of our modern mathematical sciences support a lofty vision of a world completely ordered by one single elegant theory. In this book Nancy Cartwright argues to the contrary. When we draw our image of the world from the way modern science works - as empiricism teaches us we should - we end up with a world where some features are precisely ordered, others are given to rough regularity and still others behave in their own diverse ways. This patchwork makes sense when we realise that laws are very special productions of nature, requiring very special arrangements for their generation. Combining classic and newly written essays on physics and economics, The Dappled World carries important philosophical consequences and offers serious lessons for both the natural and the social sciences.

Nancy Cartwright s Philosophy of Science

Author: Luc Bovens
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134170564
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Nancy Cartwright is one of the most distinguished and influential contemporary philosophers of science. Despite the profound impact of her work, there is neither a systematic exposition of Cartwright’s philosophy of science nor a collection of articles that contains in-depth discussions of the major themes of her philosophy. This book is devoted to a critical assessment of Cartwright’s philosophy of science and contains contributions from Cartwright's champions and critics. Broken into three parts, the book begins by addressing Cartwright's views on the practice of model building in science and the question of how models represent the world before moving on to a detailed discussion of methodologically and metaphysically challenging problems. Finally, the book addresses Cartwright's original attempts to clarify profound questions concerning the metaphysics of science. With contributions from leading scholars, such as Ronald N. Giere and Paul Teller, this unique volume will be extremely useful to philosophers of science the world over.

How the Laws of Physics Lie

Author: Nancy Cartwright
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198247044
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Nancy Cartwright argues for a novel conception of the role of fundamental scientific laws in modern natural science. If we attend closely to the manner in which theoretical laws figure in the practice of science, we see that despite their great explanatory power these laws do not describe reality. Instead, fundamental laws describe highly idealized objects in models.

Evidence Based Policy

Author: Nancy Cartwright
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199986703
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Over the last twenty or so years, it has become standard to require policy makers to base their recommendations on evidence. That is now uncontroversial to the point of triviality--of course, policy should be based on the facts. But are the methods that policy makers rely on to gather and analyze evidence the right ones? In Evidence-Based Policy, Nancy Cartwright, an eminent scholar, and Jeremy Hardie, who has had a long and successful career in both business and the economy, explain that the dominant methods which are in use now--broadly speaking, methods that imitate standard practices in medicine like randomized control trials--do not work. They fail, Cartwright and Hardie contend, because they do not enhance our ability to predict if policies will be effective. The prevailing methods fall short not just because social science, which operates within the domain of real-world politics and deals with people, differs so much from the natural science milieu of the lab. Rather, there are principled reasons why the advice for crafting and implementing policy now on offer will lead to bad results. Current guides in use tend to rank scientific methods according to the degree of trustworthiness of the evidence they produce. That is valuable in certain respects, but such approaches offer little advice about how to think about putting such evidence to use. Evidence-Based Policy focuses on showing policymakers how to effectively use evidence, explaining what types of information are most necessary for making reliable policy, and offers lessons on how to organize that information.

Hunting Causes and Using Them

Author: Nancy Cartwright
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139462547
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Hunting Causes and Using Them argues that causation is not one thing, as commonly assumed, but many. There is a huge variety of causal relations, each with different characterizing features, different methods for discovery and different uses to which it can be put. In this collection of new and previously published essays, Nancy Cartwright provides a critical survey of philosophical and economic literature on causality, with a special focus on the currently fashionable Bayes-nets and invariance methods - and it exposes a huge gap in that literature. Almost every account treats either exclusively how to hunt causes or how to use them. But where is the bridge between? It's no good knowing how to warrant a causal claim if we don't know what we can do with that claim once we have it. This book will interest philosophers, economists and social scientists.

Nature s Capacities and Their Measurement

Author: Nancy Cartwright
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198235070
Format: PDF
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This book argues for the place of capacities within an grounds of meaning, not method. Yet it is questions of method that should concern the modern empiricist: can capacities be measured? Cartwright argues that they are measured if anything is. Stanford University's Gravity-Probe-B will measure capacities in a cryogenic dewar deep in space. More mundanely, we use probabilities to measure capacities, and the assumptions required to ensure that probabilities are a reliable instrument are investigated in the opening chapters of this book, where the early methods of econometrics set a model. The last chapter applies lessons about probabilities and capacities to quantum mechanics and the Bell inequalities. The central thesis throughout is that capacities not only can be admitted by empiricists, but indeed must be - otherwise the empirical methods of modern science will make no sense.

Evidence based Practice in Education

Author: Tone Kvernbekk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135039186
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Much educational debate today is dominated by a "what works" vocabulary, intimately associated with evidence-based practice (EBP). The vocabulary consists of concepts and ideas such as accountability, competency, effectiveness, employability, learning outcomes, predictability, qualifications, and testing. As schooling and education are considered successful when predetermined outcomes have been achieved, education is often believed to require assessment, measurement and documentation. In this book, Tone Kvernbekk leaves the political, ethical and professional dimensions on the sidelines and focuses instead on further unpacking the core of EBP. Chapters concentrate on several fundamental issues ignored by current literature, including: the character of the evidence that plays a central role in EBP in both practical reasoning and acting under uncertainty the notion of causality presupposed by discussion of the production of desired effects and played out in the basic structure of interventions a system-theoretical look at why interventions might not work. By considering these key points, Kvernbekk articulates both the legitimate uses and the illegitimate, philosophically problematic misuses of EBP in educational thinking and practice. The book will be of key value for academics and postgraduate students in the fields of educational research and practice, philosophy of education and educational theory, especially those concerned with research methodology, professionalism, and discussions regarding evidence-based practice.

Science Without Laws

Author: Ronald N. Giere
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226292083
Format: PDF
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Science without Laws thus stakes out a middle ground in these debates by demonstrating a more powerful way of seeing science.