The Difficulty of Tolerance

Author: T. M. Scanlon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521533980
Format: PDF, ePub
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This volume presents Scanlon's classic essays in political philosophy written between 1969 and 1999.

The Difficulty of Tolerance

Author: T. M. Scanlon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521826617
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Written between 1969 and 1999, these essays in political philosophy examine the standards by which social and political institutions should be justified and appraised. The collection includes the classic essays "Preference and Urgency", "A Theory of Freedom of Expression", and "Contractualism and Utilitarianism", as well as other essays that have not been generally accessible until now. The volume will be essential reading for all studying these topics from the perspective of political philosophy, politics, and law.

The Difficulty of Tolerance

Author: T. M. Scanlon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521533980
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
This volume presents Scanlon's classic essays in political philosophy written between 1969 and 1999.

The Difficulty of Tolerance

Author: T. M. Scanlon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521533980
Format: PDF
Download Now
This volume presents Scanlon's classic essays in political philosophy written between 1969 and 1999.

Toleration Respect and Recognition in Education

Author: Mitja Sardoc
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444351974
Format: PDF
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Toleration, Respect and Recognition in Education brings together a collection of papers examining the complexity of different interpretations of toleration, respect and recognition in education. Discusses different theories of toleration and shows how it lies at the centre of a liberal pluralistic society Brings together the work of leading scholars from a range of disciplines Examines how education can accommodate diversity and promote shared public values

Being Realistic about Reasons

Author: T. M. Scanlon
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019100314X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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T. M. Scanlon offers a qualified defense of normative cognitivism—the view that there are irreducibly normative truths about reasons for action. He responds to three familiar objections: that such truths would have troubling metaphysical implications; that we would have no way of knowing what they are; and that the role of reasons in motivating and explaining action could not be explained if accepting a conclusion about reasons for action were a kind of belief. Scanlon answers the first of these objections within a general account of ontological commitment, applying to mathematics as well as normative judgments. He argues that the method of reflective equilibrium, properly understood, provides an adequate account of how we come to know both normative truths and mathematical truths, and that the idea of a rational agent explains the link between an agent's normative beliefs and his or her actions. Whether every statement about reasons for action has a determinate truth value is a question to be answered by an overall account of reasons for action, in normative terms. Since it seems unlikely that there is such an account, the defense of normative cognitivism offered here is qualified: statements about reasons for action can have determinate truth values, but it is not clear that all of them do. Along the way, Scanlon offers an interpretation of the distinction between normative and non-normative claims, a new account of the supervenience of the normative on the non-normative, an interpretation of the idea of the relative strength of reasons, and a defense of the method of reflective equilibrium.

Toleration

Author: David Heyd
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400822010
Format: PDF, Docs
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If we are to understand the concept of toleration in terms of everyday life, we must address a key philosophical and political tension: the call for restraint when encountering apparently wrong beliefs and actions versus the good reasons for interfering with the lives of the subjects of these beliefs and actions. This collection contains original contributions to the ongoing debate on the nature of toleration, including its definition, historical development, justification, and limits. In exploring the issues surrounding toleration, the essays address a variety of provocative questions. Is toleration a moral virtue of individuals or rather a pragmatic political compromise? Is it an intrinsically good principle or only a "second best-solution" to the dangers of fanaticism to be superseded one day by the full acceptance of others? Does the value of toleration lie in respect to individuals and their autonomy, or rather in the recognition of the right of minority groups to maintain their communal identity? Throughout, the contributors point to the inherent indeterminacy of the concept and to the difficulty in locating it between intolerant absolutism and skeptical pluralism. Religion, sex, speech, and education are major areas requiring toleration in liberal societies. By applying theoretical analysis, these essays show the differences in the argument for toleration and its scope in each of these realms. The contributors include Joshua Cohen, George Fletcher, Gordon Graham, Alon Harel, Moshe Halbertal, Barbara Herman, John Horton, Will Kymlicka, Avishai Margalit, David Richards, Thomas Scanlon, and Bernard Williams.

What We Owe to Each Other

Author: Thomas Scanlon
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674950894
Format: PDF, Kindle
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How do we judge whether an action is morally right or wrong? If an action is wrong, what reason does that give us not to do it? Why should we give such reasons priority over our other concerns and values? In this book, T. M. Scanlon offers new answers to these questions, as they apply to the central part of morality that concerns what we owe to each other. According to his contractualist view, thinking about right and wrong is thinking about what we do in terms that could be justified to others and that they could not reasonably reject. He shows how the special authority of conclusions about right and wrong arises from the value of being related to others in this way, and he shows how familiar moral ideas such as fairness and responsibility can be understood through their role in this process of mutual justification and criticism. Scanlon bases his contractualism on a broader account of reasons, value, and individual well-being that challenges standard views about these crucial notions. He argues that desires do not provide us with reasons, that states of affairs are not the primary bearers of value, and that well-being is not as important for rational decision-making as it is commonly held to be. Scanlon is a pluralist about both moral and non-moral values. He argues that, taking this plurality of values into account, contractualism allows for most of the variability in moral requirements that relativists have claimed, while still accounting for the full force of our judgments of right and wrong.

Justice for Earthlings

Author: David Miller
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107028795
Format: PDF, Docs
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David Miller explores what justice means for real people and challenges philosophical theories that ignore the facts of human life.

Bounds of Justice

Author: Onora O'Neill
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521447447
Format: PDF, Docs
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Argues for a concept of justice that takes account of boundaries, institutions and human diversity.