The Impact of Immigration on Children s Development

Author: Cynthia T. García Coll
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3805597983
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Explores the impact of immigration in a global context All over the world families migrate, and with them so do their children. Probing the question of what being an immigrant' means, this publication brings together theory and empirical findings to highlight the impact of immigration on child development in a global context. Discussed is the impact of these processes on children and adolescents in a variety of different countries and social contexts to determine both universal and culturally specific aspects of the experience of immigration as it becomes a pervasive reality of the modern world. This publication is appropriate for anyone who is interested in the process of migration/immigration and how it affects human development. Both students and scholars as well as real-world practitioners and policy makers in education, psychology, sociology, anthropology, ethnic and cultural studies, immigration studies, government and public policy will find this book a valuable source of information about the present and the way in which the next generation develops in response to the immigrant experience.

Immigrants Raising Citizens

Author: Hirokazu Yoshikawa
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610447077
Format: PDF
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An in-depth look at the challenges undocumented immigrants face as they raise children in the U.S. There are now nearly four million children born in the United States who have undocumented immigrant parents. In the current debates around immigration reform, policymakers often view immigrants as an economic or labor market problem to be solved, but the issue has a very real human dimension. Immigrant parents without legal status are raising their citizen children under stressful work and financial conditions, with the constant threat of discovery and deportation that may narrow social contacts and limit participation in public programs that might benefit their children. Immigrants Raising Citizens offers a compelling description of the everyday experiences of these parents, their very young children, and the consequences these experiences have on their children’s development. Immigrants Raising Citizens challenges conventional wisdom about undocumented immigrants, viewing them not as lawbreakers or victims, but as the parents of citizens whose adult productivity will be essential to the nation’s future. The book’s findings are based on data from a three-year study of 380 infants from Dominican, Mexican, Chinese, and African American families, which included in-depth interviews, in-home child assessments, and parent surveys. The book shows that undocumented parents share three sets of experiences that distinguish them from legal-status parents and may adversely influence their children’s development: avoidance of programs and authorities, isolated social networks, and poor work conditions. Fearing deportation, undocumented parents often avoid accessing valuable resources that could help their children’s development—such as access to public programs and agencies providing child care and food subsidies. At the same time, many of these parents are forced to interact with illegal entities such as smugglers or loan sharks out of financial necessity. Undocumented immigrants also tend to have fewer reliable social ties to assist with child care or share information on child-rearing. Compared to legal-status parents, undocumented parents experience significantly more exploitive work conditions, including long hours, inadequate pay and raises, few job benefits, and limited autonomy in job duties. These conditions can result in ongoing parental stress, economic hardship, and avoidance of center-based child care—which is directly correlated with early skill development in children. The result is poorly developed cognitive skills, recognizable in children as young as two years old, which can negatively impact their future school performance and, eventually, their job prospects. Immigrants Raising Citizens has important implications for immigration policy, labor law enforcement, and the structure of community services for immigrant families. In addition to low income and educational levels, undocumented parents experience hardships due to their status that have potentially lifelong consequences for their children. With nothing less than the future contributions of these children at stake, the book presents a rigorous and sobering argument that the price for ignoring this reality may be too high to pay.

The Oxford Handbook of Poverty and Child Development

Author: Valerie Maholmes, Ph.D., CAS Ph.D.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199772967
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Over 15 million children live in families subsisting below the federal poverty level, and there are nearly 4 million more children living in poverty today than in the turn of the 21st century. When compared to their more affluent counterparts, children living in fragile circumstances-including homeless children, children in foster care, and children living in families affected by chronic physical or mental health problems-are more likely to have low academic achievement, to drop out of school, and to have health and behavioral problems. The Oxford Handbook of Poverty and Child Development provides a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms through which socioeconomic, cultural, familial, and community-level factors impact the early and long-term cognitive, neurobiological, socio-emotional, and physical development of children living in poverty. Leading contributors from various disciplines review basic and applied multidisciplinary research and propose questions and answers regarding the short and long-term impact of poverty, contexts and policies on child developmental trajectories. In addition, the book features analyses involving diverse children of all ages, particularly those from understudied groups (e.g. Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, immigrants) and those from understudied geographic areas (e.g., the rural U.S; international humanitarian settings). Each of the 7 sections begins with an overview of basic biological and behavioral research on child development and poverty, followed by applied analyses of contemporary issues that are currently at the heart of public debates on child health and well-being, and concluded with suggestions for policy reform. Through collaborative, interdisciplinary research, this book identifies the most pressing scientific issues involving poverty and child development, and offers new ideas and research questions that could lead us to develop a new science of research that is multidisciplinary, longitudinal, and that embraces an ecological approach to the study of child development.

Transitions

Author: Carola Suárez-Orozco
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814770177
Format: PDF
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Immigration to the United States has reached historic numbers— 25 percent of children under the age of 18 have an immigrant parent, and this number is projected to grow to one in three by 2050. These children have become a significant part of our national tapestry, and how they fare is deeply intertwined with the future of our nation. Immigrant children and the children of immigrants face unique developmental challenges. Navigating two distinct cultures at once, immigrant-origin children have no expert guides to lead them through the process. Instead, they find themselves acting as guides for their parents. How are immigrant children like all other children, and how are they unique? What challenges as well as what opportunities do their circumstances present for their development? What characteristics are they likely to share because they have immigrant parents, and what characteristics are unique to specific groups of origin? How are children of first-generation immigrants different from those of second-generation immigrants? Transitions offers comprehensive coverage of the field’s best scholarship on the development of immigrant children, providing an overview of what the field needs to know—or at least systematically begin to ask—about the immigrant child and adolescent from a developmental perspective. This book takes an interdisciplinary perspective to consider how personal, social, and structural factors interact to determine a variety of trajectories of development. The editors have curated contributions from experts across a carefully selected variety of topics covering ecologies, processes, and outcomes of development pertinent to immigrant origin children.

The Immigrant Paradox in Children and Adolescents

Author: Cynthia T. García Coll
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
ISBN: 9781433810534
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"In this edited volume, we seek to provide a better understanding of child and adolescent development in the contexts of parent immigration to the United States during the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st. The families studied in this book represent those who have experienced immigration processes in a particular time and place, or perhaps better said-- times and places. They represent part of a major demographic shift in the United States (See Chapter 1, this volume). They differ from previous waves of U.S. migrants by place of origin, language, race, and ethnicity. The earlier waves were mostly from Europe; the more recent have been from Latin America and Asia. This book is the first to devote itself to the documentation and explanation of the immigrant paradox in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. The book is intended for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and colleagues in the area of immigration or ethnic studies, sociology, psychology, and education. Both authors and editors hope that our readers will increase their knowledge of immigration in general as well as of the specific and sometimes extraordinary demands this process entails and the assets and liabilities that these families have to cope with these demands. In addition, readers will learn where the immigrant paradox exists in education and behavior as well as some health outcomes among youth in immigrant families. Also elucidated here is how both settings and personal attributes contribute to the paradox and the differential outcomes observed not only by generation but by ethnic group and age. Most important, the implications for policy and practice, we hope, will come not only from our own writing but from our readers' informed interpretation and understanding of the phenomena"--Introduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

Immigration and Identity

Author: Salman Akhtar
Publisher: Jason Aronson
ISBN: 9780765702326
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Why do people migrate from one country to another? What is the difference between an immigrant and an exile? What determines the psychological outcome of immigration? Can one ever mourn the loss of one's country? What are the defensive functions of nostalgia? Are there specific guidelines for psychotherapy and psychoanalysis for immigrant patients? How can the therapist disentangle the patient's cultural rationalizations from underlying intrapsychic conflicts? In this unique book, psychoanalyst and poet Salman Akhtar provides answers to such questions. He notes that migration from one country to another has lasting effects on an individual's identity. Such identity change involves the dimensions of drives and affects, psychic space, temporality, and social affiliation. Dr. Akhtar addresses the immigrant's idealization and devaluation, closeness and distance, hope and nostalgia, transitional area of the mind, superego change, and linguistic transformation. With poignant clinical vignettes, he illustrates the implications of these ideas for the therapeutic process where the therapist, the patient, or both, are immigrants. Immigration and Identity, replete with poetry and personal letters from immigrant colleagues from many nations, conveys its message with irony, wit, laughter, pain, sadness, empathy, and, above all, clinical and human wisdom.

How Immigrants Impact Their Homelands

Author: Susan Eckstein
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822353954
Format: PDF, ePub
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This collection examines the economic, social, and cultural effects that immigrants have had on their home countries, including China, Cuba, India, Mexico, Mozambique, the Philippines, and Turkey.

The Oxford Handbook of Poverty and Child Development

Author: Valerie Maholmes
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199769109
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Comprehensive and integrative, The Oxford Handbook of Poverty and Child Development describes the contextual and social ecology of children living in poverty and illuminates the biological and behavioral interactions that either promote optimal development or that place children at risk of having poor developmental outcomes.

Translating Childhoods

Author: Marjorie Faulstich Orellana
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813548630
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Though the dynamics of immigrant family life has gained attention from scholars, little is known about the younger generation, often considered "invisible." Translating Childhoods, a unique contribution to the study of immigrant youth, brings children to the forefront by exploring the "work" they perform as language and culture brokers, and the impact of this largely unseen contribution. Skilled in two vernaculars, children shoulder basic and more complicated verbal exchanges for non-English speaking adults. Readers hear, through children's own words, what it means be "in the middle" or the "keys to communication" that adults otherwise would lack. Drawing from ethnographic data and research in three immigrant communities, Marjorie Faulstich Orellana's study expands the definition of child labor by assessing children's roles as translators as part of a cost equation in an era of global restructuring and considers how sociocultural learning and development is shaped as a result of children's contributions as translators.