The Mechanobiology and Mechanophysiology of Military Related Injuries

Author: Amit Gefen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319330128
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
This book provides a state-of-the-art update, as well as perspectives on future directions of research and clinical applications in the implementation of biomechanical and biophysical experimental, theoretical and computational models which are relevant to military medicine. Such experimental and modeling efforts are helpful, on the one hand, in understanding the aetiology, pathophysiology and dynamics of injury development and on the other hand in guiding the development of better equipment and protective gear or devices that should ultimately reduce the prevalence and incidence of injuries or lessen their hazardous effects. The book is useful for military-oriented biomedical engineers and medical physicists, as well as for military physiologists and other medical specialists who are interested in the science and technology implemented in modern investigations of military related injuries.

Theory and Applications of Heat Transfer in Humans

Author: Devashish Shrivastava
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119127319
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
An authoritative guide to theory and applications of heat transfer in humans Theory and Applications of Heat Transfer in Humans 2V Set offers a reference to the field of heating and cooling of tissue, and associated damage. The author—a noted expert in the field—presents, in this book, the fundamental physics and physiology related to the field, along with some of the recent applications, all in one place, in such a way as to enable and enrich both beginner and advanced readers. The book provides a basic framework that can be used to obtain ‘decent’ estimates of tissue temperatures for various applications involving tissue heating and/or cooling, and also presents ways to further develop more complex methods, if needed, to obtain more accurate results. The book is arranged in three sections: The first section, named ‘Physics’, presents fundamental mathematical frameworks that can be used as is or combined together forming more complex tools to determine tissue temperatures; the second section, named ‘Physiology’, presents ideas and data that provide the basis for the physiological assumptions needed to develop successful mathematical tools; and finally, the third section, named ‘Applications’, presents examples of how the marriage of the first two sections are used to solve problems of today and tomorrow. This important text is the vital resource that: Offers a reference book in the field of heating and cooling of tissue, and associated damage. Provides a comprehensive theoretical and experimental basis with biomedical applications Shows how to develop and implement both, simple and complex mathematical models to predict tissue temperatures Includes simple examples and results so readers can use those results directly or adapt them for their applications Designed for students, engineers, and other professionals, a comprehensive text to the field of heating and cooling of tissue that includes proven theories with applications. The author reveals how to develop simple and complex mathematical models, to predict tissue heating and/or cooling, and associated damage.

Biomechanics Trends in Modeling and Simulation

Author: Gerhard A. Holzapfel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319414755
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
The book presents a state-of-the-art overview of biomechanical and mechanobiological modeling and simulation of soft biological tissues. Seven well-known scientists working in that particular field discuss topics such as biomolecules, networks and cells as well as failure, multi-scale, agent-based, bio-chemo-mechanical and finite element models appropriate for computational analysis. Applications include arteries, the heart, vascular stents and valve implants as well as adipose, brain, collagenous and engineered tissues. The mechanics of the whole cell and sub-cellular components as well as the extracellular matrix structure and mechanotransduction are described. In particular, the formation and remodeling of stress fibers, cytoskeletal contractility, cell adhesion and the mechanical regulation of fibroblast migration in healing myocardial infarcts are discussed. The essential ingredients of continuum mechanics are provided. Constitutive models of fiber-reinforced materials with an emphasis on arterial walls and the myocardium are discussed and the important influence of residual stresses on material response emphasized. The mechanics and function of the heart, the brain and adipose tissues are discussed as well. Particular attention is focused on microstructural and multi-scale modeling, finite element implementation and simulation of cells and tissues.

Stem Cell Engineering

Author: Robert M. Nerem
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319050745
Format: PDF
Download Now
This book describes a global assessment of stem cell engineering research, achieved through site visits by a panel of experts to leading institutes, followed by dedicated workshops. The assessment made clear that engineers and the engineering approach with its quantitative, system-based thinking can contribute much to the progress of stem cell research and development. The increased need for complex computational models and new, innovative technologies, such as high-throughput screening techniques, organ-on-a-chip models and in vitro tumor models require an increasing involvement of engineers and physical scientists. Additionally, this book will show that although the US is still in a leadership position in stem cell engineering, Asian countries such as Japan, China and Korea, as well as European countries like the UK, Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands are rapidly expanding their investments in the field. Strategic partnerships between countries could lead to major advances of the field and scalable expansion and differentiation of stem cells. This study was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

The Mechanobiology of Obesity and Related Diseases

Author: Amit Gefen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319093363
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
This volume describes the state-of-knowledge in the study of the relationships between mechanical loading states in tissues and common pathophysiologies related to increase in mass of adipose tissues and/or hyperglycemia which eventually lead to obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, metabolic inflammations, certain types of cancer and other related diseases. There appears to be an interaction between the loading states in tissues and cells and these chronic conditions, as well as with factors such as age, gender and genetics of the individual. Bioengineering has made key contributions to this research field in providing technologies for cell biomechanics experimentation, microscopy and image processing, tissue engineering and multi-scale, multi-physics computational modeling. Topics at the frontier of this field of study include: the continuous monitoring of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation in response to mechanical factors such as stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical loads transferred through the ECM; mechanically-activated signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms; effects of different loading regimes and mechanical environments on differentiation fates of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into myogenic and osteogenic versus adipogenic lineages; the interactions between nutrition and mechanotransduction; cell morphology, focal adhesion patterns and cytoskeletal remodeling changes in adipogenesis; activation of receptors related to diabetes by mechanical forces; brown and white adipose plasticity and its regulation by mechanical factors.

Emergency Pathophysiology

Author: Samuel M. Galvagno
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1591610079
Format: PDF
Download Now
This core textbook defines the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the disease states commonly encountered by pre-hospital care providers. The chapters are short, clinically focused and specific to the diseases, disorders, and traumatic conditions of critical interest to the EMT and pre-hospital environment. Each chapter identifies the appropriate drugs and management guidelines to be used. Designed to bridge the gap between EMT and the Physician in all emergent or acute conditions, the book includes management cautions and tips are highlighted throughout the presentation. The book is tailored specifically to the curriculum for EMT training.

Wave Propagation in Solid and Porous Half Space Media

Author: Hamid R. Hamidzadeh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
ISBN: 1461492696
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
This book covers advanced topics in dynamic modeling of soil-foundation interaction, as well as the response of elastic semi-infinite media from an applications viewpoint. Advanced concepts such as solutions for analysis of elastic semi-infinite mediums, fluid motion in porous media, and nonlinearities in dynamic behavior are explained in great detail. Related theories and numerical analysis for vertical vibration, and rocking vibration of a rigid rectangular mass-less plate, and horizontal vibration of a rigid mass-less plate are presented. Throughout the book, a strong emphasis is placed on applications, and a laboratory model for elastic half-space medium is provided.

Physiological Bases of Human Performance During Work and Exercise

Author: Nigel A. S. Taylor
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780443102714
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Physiological Bases of Human Performance during Work and Exercise is a high-level physiology text for advanced students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of human physiology, exercise science and applied physiology. Eighty internationally recognised scientists from sixteen countries have written chapters within six areas: Physiological performance limits and human adaptation; The physiological bases of gender differences in performance; Age and human performance; Performance under environmental extremes; Exercise and health interactions; and Optimising performance through supplementation. Each section contains state-of-the-art reviews of the scientific literature. To stimulate critical thinking, there are thirteen debates and discussions that focus on some of the controversial topics that exist across these disciplines.

Seismic Wave Propagation in Non Homogeneous Elastic Media by Boundary Elements

Author: George D. Manolis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319452061
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This book focuses on the mathematical potential and computational efficiency of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) for modeling seismic wave propagation in either continuous or discrete inhomogeneous elastic/viscoelastic, isotropic/anisotropic media containing multiple cavities, cracks, inclusions and surface topography. BEM models may take into account the entire seismic wave path from the seismic source through the geological deposits all the way up to the local site under consideration. The general presentation of the theoretical basis of elastodynamics for inhomogeneous and heterogeneous continua in the first part is followed by the analytical derivation of fundamental solutions and Green's functions for the governing field equations by the usage of Fourier and Radon transforms. The numerical implementation of the BEM is for antiplane in the second part as well as for plane strain boundary value problems in the third part. Verification studies and parametric analysis appear throughout the book, as do both recent references and seminal ones from the past. Since the background of the authors is in solid mechanics and mathematical physics, the presented BEM formulations are valid for many areas such as civil engineering, geophysics, material science and all others concerning elastic wave propagation through inhomogeneous and heterogeneous media. The material presented in this book is suitable for self-study. The book is written at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students in solid mechanics, computational mechanics and fracture mechanics.

Deployable Structures

Author: S. Pellegrino
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3709125847
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Deployable structures can vary their shape automatically from a compact, packaged configuration to an expanded, operational configuration. The first properly engineered deployable structures were used as stabilization booms on early spacecraft. Later on, more complex structures were devised for solar arrays, communication reflectors and telescopes. In other fields there have been a variety of developments, including retractable roofs for stadia, foldable components for cars, portable structures for temporary shelters and exhibition displays. Three main themes are discussed in this book: concepts, working principles, and mechanics of deployable structures, both in engineering and biology; in addition: theory of foldable bar structures and application to deployable tensegrieties; formulation of large-rotation analysis of deployable structures and finite-element simulation methods.