The Migration of Constitutional Ideas

Author: Sujit Choudhry
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139460774
Format: PDF, ePub
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The migration of constitutional ideas across jurisdictions is one of the central features of contemporary constitutional practice. The increasing use of comparative jurisprudence in interpreting constitutions is one example of this. In this 2007 book, leading figures in the study of comparative constitutionalism and comparative constitutional politics from North America, Europe and Australia discuss the dynamic processes whereby constitutional systems influence each other. They explore basic methodological questions which have thus far received little attention, and examine the complex relationship between national and supranational constitutionalism - an issue of considerable contemporary interest in Europe. The migration of constitutional ideas is discussed from a variety of methodological perspectives - comparative law, comparative politics, and cultural studies of law - and contributors draw on case-studies from a wide variety of jurisdictions: Australia, Hungary, India, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada.

Constitutional Design for Divided Societies

Author: Sujit Choudhry
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191021512
Format: PDF, Mobi
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How should constitutional design respond to the opportunities and challenges raised by ethnic, linguistic, religious, and cultural differences, and do so in ways that promote democracy, social justice, peace and stability? This is one of the most difficult questions facing societies in the world today. There are two schools of thought on how to answer this question. Under the heading of accommodation, some have argued for the need to recognize, institutionalize and empower differences. There are a range of constitutional instruments available to achieve this goal, such as multinational federalism and administrative decentralization, legal pluralism (e.g. religious personal law), other forms of non-territorial minority rights (e.g. minority language and religious education rights), consociationalism, affirmative action, legislative quotas, etc. But others have countered that such practices may entrench, perpetuate and exacerbate the very divisions they are designed to manage. They propose a range of alternative strategies that fall under the rubric of integration that will blur, transcend and cross-cut differences. Such strategies include bills of rights enshrining universal human rights enforced by judicial review, policies of disestablishment (religious and ethnocultural), federalism and electoral systems designed specifically to include members of different groups within the same political unit and to disperse members of the same group across different units, are some examples. In this volume, leading scholars of constitutional law, comparative politics and political theory address the debate at a conceptual level, as well as through numerous country case-studies, through an interdisciplinary lens, but with a legal and institutional focus.

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law

Author: Michel Rosenfeld
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199578613
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The field of comparative constitutional law is vast and diverse, international and interdisciplinary. The first single source of reference on the topic, the entries in Handbook are written by leading authorities and discuss the most important subjects in the field, covering the history and development of the discipline, core concepts, structure and interpretations, institutions, rights, and emerging trends. It is an invaluable resource for everyone in the field.

Yearbook on International Investment Law Policy 2013 2014

Author: Andrea K. Bjorklund
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190265779
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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International investment law today consists of a network of multifaceted, multilayered international treaties that, in one way or another, involve virtually every country of the world. The evolution of this network raises a host of issues regarding international investment law and policy, especially in the area of international investment disputes. The Yearbook on International Investment Law & Policy 2013-2014 monitors current developments in international investment law and policy, focusing on recent trends and issues in foreign direct investment (FDI). With contributions by leading experts in the field, this title provides timely, authoritative information on FDI that can be used by a wide audience, including practitioners, academics, researchers, and policy makers. The 2013-2014 Yearbook begins with trends in international investment and the activities of multinational enterprises, a review of trends and new approaches in international investment agreements for 2013-2014, and a review of international investment law and arbitration for 2013. This edition contains a sample of the research and ideas generated by the Investment Treaty Forum at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law--The Investment Treaty Forum brings together experts in international investment law to engage in high-level debate about salient topics in investment law. This edition covers many important topics, such as the principle of proportionality and the problem of indeterminacy in international investment treaties; proportionality, reasonableness and standards of review in investment treaty arbitration; and the role of investors' legitimate expectations in defense of investment treaty claims. The general articles included in this volume provide analysis of balancing investor protection and regulatory freedom in international investment law. The jurisprudential interaction between ICSID tribunals and the International Court of Justice are also discussed, along with inconsistencies in investor-state awards, the role of state interpretations; old and new ways for host states to defend against investment arbitrations, and approaches and analogies in the countermeasures defense in investor-state disputes. This volume explores the political economy of crises and the international law of necessity after the great recession. In addition to this are articles on minilateral treaty-making and bilateral investment treaties; investment promotion, agencies; the trend toward open contracting; and new regulations on foreign acquisitions of land in Brazil and Argentina. This volume concludes with the winning memorials from the 2013 FDI International Moot Competition.

Central European Constitutional Courts in the Face of EU Membership

Author: Allan F. Tatham
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9004234551
Format: PDF, ePub
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Central European Constitutional Courts in the Face of EU Membership explores German legal influence on other systems of constitutional justice, concentrating on the impact of the Federal Constitutional Court’s approach to EU integration on constitutional courts in Hungary and Poland.

The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution

Author: Sujit Choudhry
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191058629
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Indian Constitution is one of the world's longest and most important political texts. Its birth, over six decades ago, signalled the arrival of the first major post-colonial constitution and the world's largest and arguably most daring democratic experiment. Apart from greater domestic focus on the Constitution and the institutional role of the Supreme Court within India's democratic framework, recent years have also witnessed enormous comparative interest in India's constitutional experiment. The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution is a wide-ranging, analytical reflection on the major themes and debates that surround India's Constitution. The Handbook provides a comprehensive account of the developments and doctrinal features of India's Constitution, as well as articulating frameworks and methodological approaches through which studies of Indian constitutionalism, and constitutionalism more generally, might proceed. Its contributions range from rigorous, legal studies of provisions within the text to reflections upon historical trends and social practices. As such the Handbook is an essential reference point not merely for Indian and comparative constitutional scholars, but for students of Indian democracy more generally.

Weak Courts Strong Rights

Author: Mark Tushnet
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400828159
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Unlike many other countries, the United States has few constitutional guarantees of social welfare rights such as income, housing, or healthcare. In part this is because many Americans believe that the courts cannot possibly enforce such guarantees. However, recent innovations in constitutional design in other countries suggest that such rights can be judicially enforced--not by increasing the power of the courts but by decreasing it. In Weak Courts, Strong Rights, Mark Tushnet uses a comparative legal perspective to show how creating weaker forms of judicial review may actually allow for stronger social welfare rights under American constitutional law. Under "strong-form" judicial review, as in the United States, judicial interpretations of the constitution are binding on other branches of government. In contrast, "weak-form" review allows the legislature and executive to reject constitutional rulings by the judiciary--as long as they do so publicly. Tushnet describes how weak-form review works in Great Britain and Canada and discusses the extent to which legislatures can be expected to enforce constitutional norms on their own. With that background, he turns to social welfare rights, explaining the connection between the "state action" or "horizontal effect" doctrine and the enforcement of social welfare rights. Tushnet then draws together the analysis of weak-form review and that of social welfare rights, explaining how weak-form review could be used to enforce those rights. He demonstrates that there is a clear judicial path--not an insurmountable judicial hurdle--to better enforcement of constitutional social welfare rights.

Gender and the Constitution

Author: Helen Irving
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139468758
Format: PDF, Kindle
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We live in an era of constitution-making. New constitutions are appearing in historically unprecedented numbers, following regime change in some countries, or a commitment to modernization in others. No democratic constitution today can fail to recognize or provide for gender equality. Constitution-makers need to understand the gendered character of all constitutions, and to recognize the differential impact on women of constitutional provisions, even where these appear gender-neutral. This book confronts what needs to be considered in writing a constitution when gender equity and agency are goals. It examines principles of constitutionalism, constitutional jurisprudence, and history. Its goal is to establish a framework for a 'gender audit' of both new and existing constitutions. It eschews a simple focus on rights and examines constitutional language, interpretation, structures and distribution of power, rules of citizenship, processes of representation, and the constitutional recognition of international and customary law. It discusses equality rights and reproductive rights as distinct issues for constitutional design.

American Constitutionalism Heard Round the World 1776 1989

Author: George Athan Billias
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814791077
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Middle Easterners: Sometimes White, Sometimes Not - an article by John Tehranian The Middle Eastern question lies at the heart of the most pressing issues of our time: the war in Iraq and on terrorism, the growing tension between preservation of our national security and protection of our civil rights, and the debate over immigration, assimilation, and our national identity. Yet paradoxically, little attention is focused on our domestic Middle Eastern population and its place in American society. Unlike many other racial minorities in our country, Middle Eastern Americans have faced rising, rather than diminishing, degrees of discrimination over time; a fact highlighted by recent targeted immigration policies, racial profiling, a war on terrorism with a decided racialist bent, and growing rates of job discrimination and hate crime. Oddly enough, however, Middle Eastern Americans are not even considered a minority in official government data. Instead, they are deemed white by law. In Whitewashed, John Tehranian combines his own personal experiences as an Iranian American with an expert’s analysis of current events, legal trends, and critical theory to analyze this bizarre Catch-22 of Middle Eastern racial classification. He explains how American constructions of Middle Eastern racial identity have changed over the last two centuries, paying particular attention to the shift in perceptions of the Middle Easterner from friendly foreigner to enemy alien, a trend accelerated by the tragic events of 9/11. Focusing on the contemporary immigration debate, the war on terrorism, media portrayals of Middle Easterners, and the processes of creating racial stereotypes, Tehranian argues that, despite its many successes, the modern civil rights movement has not done enough to protect the liberties of Middle Eastern Americans. By following how concepts of whiteness have transformed over time, Whitewashed forces readers to rethink and question some of their most deeply held assumptions about race in American society.

The Use of Foreign Precedents by Constitutional Judges

Author: Tania Groppi
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782251014
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In 2007 the International Association of Constitutional Law established an Interest Group on 'The Use of Foreign Precedents by Constitutional Judges' to conduct a survey of the use of foreign precedents by Supreme and Constitutional Courts in deciding constitutional cases. Its purpose was to determine - through empirical analysis employing both quantitative and qualitative indicators - the extent to which foreign case law is cited. The survey aimed to test the reliability of studies describing and reporting instances of transjudicial communication between Courts. The research also provides useful insights into the extent to which a progressive constitutional convergence may be taking place between common law and civil law traditions. The present work includes studies by scholars from African, American, Asian, European, Latin American and Oceania countries, representing jurisdictions belonging to both common law and civil law traditions, and countries employing both centralised and decentralised systems of judicial review. The results, published here for the first time, give us the best evidence yet of the existence and limits of a transnational constitutional communication between courts.