The Role of Freshwater Outflow in Coastal Marine Ecosystems

Author: Stig Skreslet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642708862
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Over the last decade or two marine scientists have become more aware of the role of freshwater outflow in coastal waters. Some have raised the question whether or not regulation of river flow may change the biological productivity in coastal marine ecosystems. The idea of organising a workshop to deal with this problem, arose from parallel concern in Norway and Canada, but it was soon recognised that the scientific interests were also shared by research groups in other countries. After the initial contacts had been made, it was agreed to establish a committee which should assist the workshop director in organising the workshop. The Organising committee consisted of K.F. Drinkwater, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada; S. Skreslet (workshop director), Nordland College, Norway; V.S. Smetacek, Institut fur Meereskunde an der Universitat Kiel, Germany; and H. Svendsen, University of Bergen, Norway. An Advisory committee was established to provide terms of reference for the Organising committee, with regard to the programme and selection of participants. This committee con sisted of J.B.L. Matthews (chairman), Scottish Marine Bio logical Association, U.K.; T.R. Parsons, University of British Columbia, Canada; R. S~tre, Institute of Marine Research, Nor way; M.M. Sinclair, Fisheries and Oceans, Canada; and W.S. Wooster, University of Washington, Canada.

National Parks and Protected Areas

Author: James Gordon Nelson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642609074
Format: PDF, Docs
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National parks and protected areas offer a wealth of ecological and social contributions or services to humans and life on earth. This book describes the strengths of national parks and protected areas in different parts of Europe and North America and the challenges to the full realization of their goals. It shows that they are useful not only in conserving rare species and biodiversity, but also in protecting water supply and other resources necessary to tourism and to economic and social development generally. Ideas and information on useful planning, management and decision-making arrangements are presented, and research needs are identified.

Integration of Information for Environmental Security

Author: H. Gonca Coskun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402065744
Format: PDF, ePub
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Water management and disasters, including droughts and floods are becoming very important subjects in the international platforms. This book will provide information about high technology techniques to solve important problems using remote sensing and GIS for topics such as the environmental security, water resources management, disaster forecast and prevention and information security.

Advanced Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment A Road to Safer Society and Environment

Author: Petr Hlavinek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400702795
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Stable, safe, secure and readily available water supply is one of the key factors in ensuring a good level of the public health and a stable society. Scientific assessments show that about 80 % of diseases and one-third of the total death toll in the developing countries are caused by the low quality of the drinking water. Other countries are also suffering from water shortages and insufficient quality of the drinking water. Many rivers in Europe and in other parts of the world are significantly polluted by insufficiently treated or untreated wastewater discharge. This book is based on the discussions and papers prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop that took place in Lviv, Ukraine, and addressed recent advances in water supply and wastewater treatment as a prerequisite for a safer society and environment. The contributions critically assess the existing knowledge on urban water management and provide an overview of the current water management issues, especially in the countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Mediterranean Dialogue countries.

The Comparative Roles of Suspension Feeders in Ecosystems

Author: Richard F. Dame
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402030291
Format: PDF
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Animals are a major link between the water column (pelagic) and the bottom (benthic) habitats in most shallow systems. This coupling is dominated by active processes such as suspension-feeding in which the organism actively uses energy to pump water that is then filtered to remove suspended particles that are consumed while undigested remains are deposited on the bottom. As a result of this feeding on and metabolism of particles, the animals excrete dissolved inorganic and organic waste back into the water column, and thus, become major components in the cycling and feedback of essential elements. With relatively high weight specific filtration rates of 1— 10 liters/hour/gram dry tissue and a propensity to form large aggregated populations (beds, reefs, schools and swarms), these organisms can play an important role in regulating water column processes Although estuarine bivalve molluscs such as oysters and mussels dominate the suspension-feeder literature, other groups including plankton and nekton that are found in estuarine as well as other aquatic systems are also potentially important removers of suspended particles. Thus, a significant part of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop focused on suspension-feeders as controllers of plankton abundance, biomass and diversity, system metabolism, nutrient cycling and scale dependency. Systems dominated by suspension-feeders are typically impacted by human activities including recreation, aquaculture, human and industrial pollution, and bilge water from shipping. Suspension-feeders are often impacted by fisheries and over-exploitation. These impacts commonly result in changes in ecosystem structure either through the food chain concentration of harmful substances or diseases, the introduction of alien species of suspension-feeders, or the instability of suspension-feeders systems through species displacement or phase shifts in the dominance between different suspension-feeding components such as nekton or zooplankton. These issues were addressed near the close of the workshop along with conclusions and syntheses developed by the working groups.

Sustainable Use and Development of Watersheds

Author: I. Ethem Gönenç
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402085583
Format: PDF, Kindle
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John Wesley Powell, U.S. scientist and geographer, put it best when he said that a watershed is: ...that area of land, a bounded hydrologic system, within which all living things are inextricably linked by their common water course and where, as humans settled, simple logic demanded that they become part of a community. Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes. They cross sectorial boundaries (e.g. county, state/province, and country). No matter where you are, you are in a watershed! World-wide, watersheds supply drinking water, provide r- reation and respite, and sustain life. Watersheds are rich in natural capital, producing goods (agriculture and fisheries products) and services (industry and technology) for broad geographic areas. In many countries, at the base of watersheds where tributaries empty into large water-bodies (e.g. estuaries, seas, oceans) are centers of society and are typically densely populated areas. These areas serve as concentrated centers of the socio-economic system. They also are centers of domestic and international trade, tourism, and c- merce as well as the center of governments (capitals) where local, regional and national legislatures are located. As we all live in a watershed, our individual actions can directly affect it. The cumulative effects of all the individual actions of everyone within a watershed may be, and often are devastating to the quality of water resources and affect the health of living things including humans. Therefore, watershed systems are highly subject to threat to human security and peace.

Integrated Water Management

Author: P. Meire
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402065523
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Integrated Water Management (IWM) deals with the planning and management of water resources by integrating the different issues involved, including ecological, economic, technical legislative, and transboundary. This book offers a general framework for IWM. It includes both the different environmental problems that affect the very different ecosystems and the main methodologies able to face the problem of IWM.

Nitrate Contamination

Author: istvan Bogardi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642760406
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The nitrate content of drinking water is rising at an alarming rate in several regions of NATO countries and elsewhere in the world. The increase is due to lack of proper sewage treatment, and primarily to excess fertilizer application. Also, eutrophication in several coastal areas is triggered by high nitrate concentrations. The main purpose of this book is to integrate scientific knowledge related to exposure assessment, health consequences and control of nitrate contamination in water. The motivation is related to the magnitude, the possible adverse health effects, and the high cost of control ling nitrate contamination. Future research tasks are defined by an interaction among hydro logists, toxicologists and environmental engineers in an integrated framework for nitrate risk management. The target readership of this book is a mix of university colleagues, practitioners from both the private and public sectors and advanced graduate students working with the hydrological, health science or environmental engineering aspects of nitrate contamination. The main conclusions include: 1. For risk assessment purposes, knowledge and sufficiently accurate models are available to predict nitrate load and its fate in water under changes in land use. 2. Once agricultural exposure controls are implemented, the response times in ground water may be so long as to make controls unrealistic. 3. It is still unknown whether agricultural best management practice is a compromise between nitrate risk reduction and agricultural revenue. 4. The current drinking water guidelines of 10 mg/L NOrN need not be changed.

Lake Issyk Kul Its Natural Environment

Author: J. Klerx
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402008993
Format: PDF
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Lake Issyk-Kul is a closed lake located in the Tien Shan mountain belt of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. It is the world's fifth deepest lake (668 m) and the second largest high altitude lake in the world (1607 m above sea level). The lake is affected by several environmental threats of both anthropogenic and natural origin: decline of the lake level resulting in progressively increasing salinity, incomplete vertical water exchange, and risk of contamination by past and present industrial activity. Although the lake has been intensively studied, the information is only available in unpublished reports or local scientific journals. This book presents for the first time to an international audience the main physical, chemical, biological and geological characteristics of the lake, the fruits of many years of observations, complemented by recent results of international projects. Case studies of similar problems in other parts of the world are presented, together with ethical aspects of the environmental protection of the lake.

The Utilization of Bioremediation to Reduce Soil Contamination Problems and Solutions

Author: Václav Sasek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401001316
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Traditional reliance on chemical analysis to understand the direction and extent of treatment in a bioremediation process has been found to be inadequate. Whereas the goal of bioremediation is toxicity reduction, few direct, reliable measures of this process are as yet available. Another area of intense discussion is the assessment of market forces contributing to the acceptability of bioremediation. Finally, another important component is a series of lectures and lively exchanges devoted to practical applications of different bioremediation technologies. The range of subjects covers a wide spectrum, encompassing emerging technologies as well as actual, full-scale operations. Examples discussed include landfarming, biopiling, composting, phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Each technology is explored for its utility and capability to provide desired treatment goals. Advantages and limitations of each technology are discussed. The concept of natural attenuation is also critically evaluated since in some cases where time to remediation is not a significant factor, it may be an alternative to active bioremediation operations.