Turbulent Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives

Author: Feng-Chen Li
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118181115
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Turbulent drag reduction by additives has long been a hot research topic. This phenomenon is inherently associated with multifold expertise. Solutions of drag-reducing additives are usually viscoelastic fluids having complicated rheological properties. Exploring the characteristics of drag-reduced turbulent flows calls for uniquely designed experimental and numerical simulation techniques and elaborate theoretical considerations. Pertinently understanding the turbulent drag reduction mechanism necessities mastering the fundamentals of turbulence and establishing a proper relationship between turbulence and the rheological properties induced by additives. Promoting the applications of the drag reduction phenomenon requires the knowledge from different fields such as chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, municipal engineering, and so on. This book gives a thorough elucidation of the turbulence characteristics and rheological behaviors, theories, special techniques and application issues for drag-reducing flows by surfactant additives based on the state-of-the-art of scientific research results through the latest experimental studies, numerical simulations and theoretical analyses. Covers turbulent drag reduction, heat transfer reduction, complex rheology and the real-world applications of drag reduction Introduces advanced testing techniques, such as PIV, LDA, and their applications in current experiments, illustrated with multiple diagrams and equations Real-world examples of the topic’s increasingly important industrial applications enable readers to implement cost- and energy-saving measures Explains the tools before presenting the research results, to give readers coverage of the subject from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints Consolidates interdisciplinary information on turbulent drag reduction by additives Turbulent Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives is geared for researchers, graduate students, and engineers in the fields of Fluid Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering, Turbulence, Chemical Engineering, Municipal Engineering. Researchers and practitioners involved in the fields of Flow Control, Chemistry, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Dynamics, and Rheology will also find this book to be a much-needed reference on the topic.

Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flows by Additives

Author: A. Gyr
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401712956
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flows by Additives is the first treatment of the subject in book form. The treatment is extremely broad, ranging from physicochemical to hydromechanical aspects. The book shows how fibres, polymer molecules or surfactants at very dilute concentrations can reduce the drag of turbulent flow, leading to energy savings. The dilute solutions are considered in terms of the physical chemistry and rheology, and the properties of turbulent flows are presented in sufficient detail to explain the various interaction mechanisms. Audience: Those active in fundamental research on turbulence and those seeking to apply the effects described. Fluid mechanical engineers, rheologists, those interested in energy saving methods, or in any other application in which the flow rate in turbulent flow should be increased.

Turbulent Drag Reduction by Additives

Author: Dilafruz Kulmatova
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub
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The addition of a minute amount of polymer or surfactant additive to a turbulent fluid flow can result in a large reduction in the frictional drag in pipes and channels. Over the past decades, numerous studies have been carried out on drag reducing additives (DRA). DRA have been successfully applied for potential benefits in various industrial processes, including oil well operations, heating and cooling water circuits, marine and biomedical systems. The use of additives to enhance flow in petroleum pipelines has received the greatest attention due to its great commercial success in reducting cost and energy consumption. Although this effect has been known for almost half a century, the detailed mechanism of drag reduction have still not been clearly identified and is still a subject of ongoing controversy. The aim of this thesis is to develop an understanding of the role of drag reducing agents and to explain the nature of drag reduction mechanism. This could have an impact on the design of efficient pumping systems, the design of drag-reducing agent that are more stable over time, and the modeling of mixing processes that could be an important consideration in designing practical systems.

Polymer Physics

Author: Leszek A. Utracki
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118062957
Format: PDF, Docs
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Providing a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art advanced research in the field, Polymer Physics explores the interrelationships among polymer structure, morphology, and physical and mechanical behavior. Featuring contributions from renowned experts, the book covers the basics of important areas in polymer physics while projecting into the future, making it a valuable resource for students and chemists, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and polymer scientists as well as professionals in related industries.

Wormlike Micelles

Author: Cecile A Dreiss
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 178801121X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Wormlike micelles are elongated flexible self-assembled structures created from the aggregation of amphiphiles and their resulting dynamic networks have gained attention for a number of uses, particularly in the oil industry. Written by experts, Wormlike Micelles describes the latest developments in the field providing an authoritative guide on the subject. The book starts with an introductory chapter giving an overview of the area and then looks at the three key topics of new wormlike micelle systems, characterization and applications. New systems covered in the first part include reverse wormlike micelles and stimuli-responsive wormlike micelles. The second part explores cutting-edge techniques that have led to advances in the understanding of their structure and dynamics, including direct imaging techniques and the combination of rheology with small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Finally, the book reviews their use in oil and gas well treatments as well as surfactant drag reducing solutions. Aimed at postgraduate students and researchers, this text is essential reading for anyone interested in soft matter systems.

Turbulent Drag Reduction by Polymers Surfactants and Their Mixtures in Pipeline Flow

Author: Ali Asghar Mohsenipour
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub
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Lthough extensive research work has been carried out on the drag reduction behavior of polymers and surfactants alone, little progress has been made on the synergistic effects of combined polymers and surfactants. A number of studies have demonstrated that certain types of polymers and surfactants interact with each other to form surfactant-polymer complexes. The formation of such complexes can cause changes in the solution properties and may result in better drag reduction characteristics as compared with pure additives. A series of drag-reducing surfactants and polymers were screened for the synergistic studies. The following two widely used polymeric drag reducing agents (DRA) were chosen: a copolymer of acrylamide and sodium acrylate (referred to as PAM) and polyethylene oxide (PEO). Among the different types of surfactants screened, a cationic surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (OTAC) and an anionic surfactant Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected for the synergistic study. In the case of the cationic surfactant OTAC, sodium salicylate (NaSal) was used as a counterion. No counterion was used with anionic surfactant SDS. The physical properties such as viscosity, surface tension and electrical conductivity were measured in order to detect any interaction between the polymer and the surfactant. The drag reduction (DR) ability of both pure and mixed additives was investigated in a pipeline flow loop. The effects of different parameters such as additive concentration, type of water (deionized (DI) or tap), temperature, tube diameter, and mechanical degradation were investigated. The addition of OTAC to PAM solution has a significant effect on the properties of the system. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the mixed surfactant-polymer system is found to be different from that of the surfactant alone. The anionic PAM chains collapse upon the addition of cationic OTAC and a substantial decrease in the viscosity occurs. The pipeline flow behaviour of PAM/OTAC mixtures is found to be consistent with the bench scale results. The drag reduction ability of PAM is reduced upon the addition of OTAC. At low concentrations of PAM, the effect of OTAC on the drag reduction behavior is more pronounced. The drag reduction behavior of polymer solutions is strongly influenced by the nature of water (de-ionized or tap). The addition of OTAC to PEO solution exhibited a week interaction based on the viscosity and surface tension measurements. However, the pipeline results showed a considerable synergistic effect, that is, the mixed system gave a significantly higher drag reduction (lower friction factors) as compared with the pure additives (pure polymer or pure surfactant). The synergistic effect in the mixed system was stronger at low polymer concentrations and high surfactant concentrations. Also the resistance against mechanical degradation of the additive was improved upon the addition of OTAC to PEO. The mixed PEO/SDS system exhibited a strong interaction between the polymers (PEO) and the surfactant (SDS), Using electrical conductivity and surface tension measurements, the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) and the polymer saturation point (PSP) were determined. As the PEO concentration is increased, the CAC decreases and the PSP increase. The addition of SDS to the PEO solution exhibits a remarkable increase in the relative viscosity compared to the pure PEO solution. This increase is attributed to the changes in the hydrodynamic radius of the polymer coil. The pipeline flow exhibited a considerable increase in DR for the mixed system as compared to the pure PEO solution. The addition of surfactant always improves the extent of DR up to the PSP. Also the mixed PEO/ SDS system shows better resistance against shear degradation of the additive.

Structure of Turbulence and Drag Reduction

Author: Albert Gyr
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642509711
Format: PDF, Docs
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In 1976 a similar titled IUTAM Symposium (Structure of Turbulence and Drag Reduction) was held in Washington . However, the progress made during the last thirteen years as weil as the much promising current research desired a second one this year. In Washington drag reduction by additives and by direct manipulation of the walls (compliant walls and heated surfaces) were discussed. In the meantime it became evident that drag reduction also occurs when turbulence is influenced by geometrical means, e.g. by influencing the pressure distribution by the shape of the body (airfoils) or by the introduction of streamwise perturbances on a body (riblets). In the recent years turbulence research has seen increasing attention being focused on the investigation of coherent structures, mainly in Newtonian fluids. We all know that these structures are a significant feature of turbulent flows, playing an important role in the energy balance in such flows. However their place in turbulence theories as weil as the factors influencing their development are still poorly understood. Consequently, the investigation of phenomena in which the properties of coherent structures are alte red provides a promising means of improving our understanding of turbulent flows in general.

Turbulence Structure and Modulation

Author: Alfredo Soldati
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 370912574X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Controlling turbulence is an important issue for a number of technological applications. Several methods to modulate turbulence are currently being investigated. This book describes various aspects of turbulence structure and modulation, and explains and discusses the most promising techniques in detail.